Amos Chapter 8: Israel’s sin, The incorrigible, Jacob’s Trouble, Holy Remnant

Nov 16th, 2009 | By | Category: Amos, Psalm 83 and Gog & Magog, Verse by Verse --Studies led by Br. Frank Shallieu (Click on Book name)

Amos Chapter 8: Israel’s sin, The incorrigible, Jacob’s Trouble, Holy Remnant

Amos 8:1 Thus hath the Lord GOD shown unto me: and behold a basket of summer fruit.

The fourth vision was of a basket of summer fruit. “Summer fruit” is mature and ripe, so spiritually speaking, the nation was ripe for judgment. Hence the maturity and ripeness were unfavorable.

Amos 8:2 And he said, Amos, what seest thou? And I said, A basket of summer fruit. Then said the LORD unto me, The end is come upon my people of Israel; I will not again pass by them any more.

“I will not again pass by them any more”; that is, “I will spare them no longer.” For the second time, God addressed Amos by name.

Amos 8:3 And the songs of the temple shall be howlings in that day, saith the Lord GOD: there shall be many dead bodies in every place; they shall cast them forth with silence.

“The songs of the temple shall be howlings in that day.” Amos was talking to the ten tribes, so the reference was not to the Temple at Jerusalem but to Israel’s false temple, or place of religious worship. With regard to the true Temple at Jerusalem, the singers were men, and no doubt the Psalms were sung. The songs in the false temple were probably sung by women.

Comment: The singing of women has a parallel today with women cantors in the more liberal synagogues.

“There shall be many dead bodies in every place; they shall cast them forth with silence.” No wonder the singing would be that of howling and mourning, of groanings and wailings.

Comment: The NIV says, “Many, many bodies—flung everywhere! Silence!”

Reply: The “silence” is related to Amos 6:10, where an uncle came back to a house in which ten men had died and no one was there to take care of the bodies. He called, “Is anyone here?”

One person was hiding in the house.

Q: In chapter 6, the silence was attributed to the survivors’ fearing they were not in the right heart condition—the troubles were so disastrous that they were in awe. Would the thought also be that the dead bodies were so numerous that the survivors became numb to the situation?

A: Yes, the wailing became silence because of the many dead bodies.

Amos 8:4 Hear this, O ye that swallow up the needy, even to make the poor of the land to fail,

This unpopular proclamation by Amos was addressed to the leaders.

Comment: Based on the context, verses 4-6 applied to Amos’s day, but these verses also apply to the incorrigible in the Kingdom, the clue being “new moon,” that is, the New Covenant.

Reply: Yes, there is a double application: historical and future.

Amos 8:5 Saying, When will the new moon be gone, that we may sell corn? and the sabbath, that we may set forth wheat, making the ephah small, and the shekel great, and falsifying the balances by deceit?

“When will the new moon [the New Covenant] be gone”?

Comment: In the natural application in Amos’s day, the merchants were impatient for the sabbath to be over so that they could continue their deceitful practices for gaining wealth. In the spiritual application, verses 5 and 6 express the heart sentiment of the incorrigible who survive by hypocritically and prudently obeying in the Kingdom. Their true characters will be manifested in the Little Season (Rev. 20:3).

Reply: Yes, Amos addressed his generation, saying they were impatient for the religious observance to end so that they could return to sowing the seeds of commercial greed. The future spiritual application is powerful and sobering. It shows that the perversity of fallen human nature can cling to a person. One who associates with and practices evil in the present life will have less hope of recovery in the next age. The present life influences character development.

“When will the new moon be gone” suggests that as this class approach the end of the Kingdom Age, they will be impatient for it to stop so that they can revert to their former practices and methods. They will be harboring these thoughts.

Comment: The incorrigible will hypocritically put on a front, but these habits are deeply ingrained. The openly disobedient will be cut off sooner.

Comment: This class will have a measure of understanding of truth. They will realize that if they pass the test in the Little Season, they will be kings as Adam was and live forever and be able to do what they please.

Reply: Mankind will be properly schooled, and everyone who passes the test at the end of the Millennium will be a king.

Not only will the sabbath be observed in the Kingdom, but any solemn or special holy day will also be a sabbath. In verse 5, the “sabbath” refers to the Kingdom Age, which is part of earth’s antitypical seventh thousand-year “day,” or period. We are in the early part of the sabbath now.

There will be selling in the next age. One proof is Ezekiel 45:12, which gives the monetary denomination to be used. People will work in the Kingdom, with every man being under his own vine and fig tree, but conditions will be different. Today one can lose a home if he does not have a salary, whereas there will be economic security then. Work and trading will be done.

Q: Will there be a Jubilee cycle in the Kingdom?

A: Yes, although the details are not given. There will be literal sabbaths throughout eternity; however, the sacrifices will probably cease. The sabbath was originally given to the human race before the Law, in honor of the rest of God. When the Law was given, “do this” and “don’t do that” requirements were added. Abel offered a lamb, but under the Law, details of how to offer the sacrifice were instituted.

The incorrigible class will desire to return to their previous habits and practices, but they will be unable to do this during the Kingdom Age. They will be impatient to again make “the ephah small, and the shekel great” and to falsify “the balances by deceit.” Making the ephah small refers to the quantity, that is, to decreasing (and thus cheating and skimping on) the measurement. The measure can be either liquid or dry. An example would be to sell less than a pound as a whole pound. In times past, a scoop was used to get the grain out of a barrel.

Making the scoop smaller than the alleged measurement was deceitful. The NIV makes three clear distinctions for verse 5: “skimping the measure, boosting the price, and cheating with dishonest scales.”

“Making … the shekel great.” In today’s language, the “shekel” would be the price. To practice all three things mentioned in the previous paragraph would lead to an incorrigible character. What one sows now will affect behavioral attitudes in the future and can jeopardize one’s chances for getting life.

“Falsifying the balances by deceit.” Scales were used in the past. Some scales had two plates on which weights were placed. If the weights on the one plate were lighter than listed, the amount of food, etc., put on the other plate to balance the weights would be less than it should be. In other words, false weights were used. A simpler way of cheating was to put a finger on one side to make the food seem heavier than it was.

An “ephah” was a false or skimpy quantity or measure. The “shekel” signified an inflated price. “Scales” would be false weight.

The “new moon” was the first day of a month in the lunar (Hebrew) year. There will be a monthly observance in the Kingdom—and afterwards too, we believe. The sabbath of rest every seventh day, in which no servile labor is done, will be conducive to religious thinking.

The inauguration service for the Third Temple, which will continue for a week, will be literal with bullocks and goats. The Passover will be observed at least during the Kingdom, and there will be a Feast of Ingathering. Every year people will go representatively up to Jerusalem to keep the Feast of Tabernacles. The New (Law) Covenant will have some additions and some deletions from the old Law Covenant, but the principles will remain the same because they are both of the same God.

Amos 8:6 That we may buy the poor for silver, and the needy for a pair of shoes; yea, and sell the refuse of the wheat?

Q: What do “poor” and “needy” mean with regard to the Kingdom, since no one will be materially poor at the end of the Kingdom?

A: These terms refer to the previous (or present) life, for no one will be temporally poor in the Kingdom. Amos was speaking of a greedy and dishonest practice in his day, whereby the poor and needy were deprived. With the spiritual application, there will be “poor” and “needy” in a figurative or spiritual sense. In other words, a “poor” and “needy” class will come forth from the tomb in waves of resuscitation throughout the Kingdom.

People will come forth with the same character that they developed in the present life. To get life, they must be trained under the Kingdom laws so that when the test of the Little Season comes, they will have developed a character that will withstand the wiles of Satan, who will then be loosed. The trial will be severe. Even today some people are satisfied with the humblest and simplest things (for example, watching birds or planting flowers). Such are not of the temperament that seeks to build up an estate or business. These “poor in spirit” will be overjoyed to have an eternity to pursue “simple” interests. In contrast, other people want to earn and amass a lot of money and to have an expensive house and car in order to call attention to themselves. Generally speaking, the poor in spirit in the Kingdom will be the ones who are poor in spirit now. It is possible for a poor-in-spirit person to be wealthy, but usually that is not the case.

“Buy[ing] the poor for silver” meant slavery. A slave up for auction was bought for silver, that is, for small change. The thought is that the rich paid very little for the services of a human being.

“That we may buy … the needy [human beings] for a pair of shoes.” What an attitude of contempt! Rich people often look on the poor as nobodies. There is little regard for the feelings and value of fellow human beings.

“That we may … sell the refuse of the wheat.” What greed! The dust and refuse were sold as wheat after the kernel had been removed.

Amos 8:7 The LORD hath sworn by the excellency of Jacob, Surely I will never forget any of their works.

The “excellency of Jacob” is the “pride of Jacob” in some of the other translations.

Comment: This verse ties in with Amos 6:8, which also mentions the “excellency of Jacob.” The  ten tribes prided themselves on their temporal prosperity, their multiplicity of gods, and their military conquests. But the very things that made them proud were actually their sins.

Reply: What from their standpoint was their excellency was actually their downfall. The abundance and prosperity went to their heads.

Amos 8:8 Shall not the land tremble for this, and every one mourn that dwelleth therein? and it shall rise up wholly as a flood; and it shall be cast out and drowned, as by the flood of Egypt.

Another word for “tremble” is “shake,” that is, from an earthquake. Ezekiel said there shall be a great shaking in the midst of the land. Consider, first, the application in Amos’s day and then the prophetic application yet future. A natural earthquake is suggested.

In the prophet’s day, “the land” was the people of the northern kingdom. They would tremble because of consternation, confusion, and fear. “And every one mourn that dwelleth therein.” All in the ten-tribe kingdom would be affected by this catastrophe.

“And it shall rise up wholly as a flood.” In an earthquake, shaking is the most common effect, but some have observed that the land ripples like waves. When an earthquake occurs, one can actually see the rolling of the land surface. Here the earthquake would be a figurative “flood” of water, whereas the land was literally doing the rising or rippling.

“And it [the land] shall be cast out and drowned, as by the flood of Egypt.” From another standpoint, the catastrophe would be the coming Assyrian invasion, which would lay waste the land, despoil it, and empty it of its inhabitants, many of whom would perish and some of whom would be taken captive.

With regard to the “flood of Egypt,” the Nile flooded its banks annually prior to the Aswan Dam. The three-month flood period was called the “Inundation.” Especially in ancient times, the water came up close to the Great Pyramid. Rich silt from the upper Nile was deposited on the banks each year. In building the Pyramid, workers utilized the Inundation to float the stones down the Nile on barges to near the Pyramid. Then the stones were drawn by ramp up to the Pyramid plateau.

Verse 1 mentioned a vision of summer fruit, the fourth of five visions Amos had. There is a future prophetic aspect as well.

Amos 8:9 And it shall come to pass in that day, saith the Lord GOD, that I will cause the sun to go down at noon, and I will darken the earth in the clear day:

Verse 9 is a reference to the Crucifixion, when the God of nature manifested anger. (There may be a future fulfillment of this phenomenon again in Jacob’s Trouble.) The land was dark for the three hours that Jesus suffered on the Cross. A remarkable contrast occurred: The day started out clear and then darkened at noon. If the day had started out cloudy, this phenomenon would not have been so pronounced. An ash cloud from the earthquake caused the sun to be darkened. It was the “best of times, the worst of times.” It was best in that Jesus was there and the Jews had opportunity to accept him as the Messiah. It was the worst in that the nation rejected him and severe judgment came in AD 69-70.

Amos 8:10 And I will turn your feasts into mourning, and all your songs into lamentation; and I will bring up sackcloth upon all loins, and baldness upon every head; and I will make it as the mourning of an only son, and the end thereof as a bitter day.

“And I will turn your feasts into mourning, and all your songs into lamentation.” Consider the “feasts [being turned] into mourning.” The prior songs of joy and feasts will become mourning and lamentation. This verse pinpoints the time, yet future, when Israel will be at peace (the false peace after their astounding victory against their Arab neighbors and just prior to Jacob’s Trouble). The Israelis will be dwelling safely with “unwalled villages” after the Arab situation is settled by nuclear warfare (Ezek. 38:11). As a tiny country, Israel will have to preempt the Arabs; that is, they will have to strike first to prevent their becoming nuclear victims. In their desire to annihilate Israel, the Arab nations will not think twice about the safety of the Palestinians. The false peace occurs before Jacob’s Trouble; the true peace occurs after Jacob’s Trouble. Jacob’s Trouble will be with the hordes from the north, not with the surrounding Arab nations, who now occupy Israel’s attention. At present, the Israelis are worried about the Arab terrorists in their immediate environment (Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, etc.), not about the terrorists up in Turkey, Russia, or Iran. When the immediate Arab nations are defeated, Israel will greatly rejoice and have special festivities. But this jubilation will be turned into mourning when they see the great cloud of enemies coming down from the north.

“I will make it as the mourning of an only son.” The Holy Remnant will mourn in the future  when they are miraculously delivered from Jacob’s Trouble and realize Jesus was their Messiah (Zech. 12:11-14). The word “son” is supplied but is correct. As the Jews flee from the enemy through the split Mount of Olives, they will see a huge three-dimensional hologram vision of the Crucifixion, which will convert them suddenly. All who flee through the valley that the earthquake opens up will see the vision, but the Holy Remnant will survive, while the unrighteous class of Jews and the enemy (Gog) will perish. The Temple platform must be leveled and then raised up by the earthquake in preparation for the building of the Third Temple. Just as the literal Temple veil was rent in twain by an earthquake when Jesus died, so the veil will be figuratively rent when the God of Israel manifests His anger in the future earthquake. Many things will happen at one time: the sky will turn dark at noon, the earth will be tumultuously ripped open by the earthquake, buildings such as Dome of the Rock will collapse, etc. Many prophets refer to these events. SUDDEN DRAMA will occur!

“And the end thereof as a bitter day.” It will be “bitter” with mourning when the Holy Remnant recognize their responsibility in having earlier rejected Jesus as Messiah. When Joseph, as prime minister, revealed his identity to his brothers who had sold him into slavery, they feared greatly. Some honest and true Jews in Israel, loyal to God, will not have their eyes of understanding opened to see Jesus as Messiah until the hologram vision occurs. Others are gradually, even now, having their eyes of understanding opened, and the understanding costs them something. Many, like Nicodemus, hide their true feelings, and some declare their belief and suffer for it.

“And I will bring up sackcloth upon all loins, and baldness upon every head; and I will make it as the mourning of an only son, and the end thereof as a bitter day.” The paragraph break at verse 11 is proper. Another picture begins.

Comment: Jeremiah 6:26 fits the setting here with the word “bitter,” and the word “spoiler” ties in the setting with Gog and Magog. “O daughter of my people, gird thee with sackcloth, and wallow thyself in ashes: make thee mourning, as for an only son, most bitter lamentation: for the spoiler shall suddenly come upon us.” The word “suddenly” adds to the drama and helps to explain why fear will come upon the people.

Reply: The reference to an “only son” applies to Jesus’ revealment in the future. At the time Jesus was crucified, the earthquake and the natural signs caused great concern, even though the nation had rejected him. Many of the scribes and Pharisees would have wondered, at least temporarily, “Did we do the wrong thing?” Some of the priests subsequently became disciples, suggesting they knew they were responsible and hence went through a period of true repentance.

The “bitter day” will be like a bitter pill to swallow. Joseph’s brothers feared when he revealed his identity to them, but he allayed their consternation in speaking comfortably to them, so it was like a bitter-sweet experience. The bitter pill was followed by their being brought to the Lord’s bosom in reconciliation. The Holy Remnant will have this experience.

Q: Does all of Amos 8:1-10 have a future application? If so, the summer fruit would be a picture of the future ripeness of Israel for judgment.

A: Yes, but the judgment will work out both ways. Another fruit picture is Jeremiah 24 with regard to good and bad figs. The bad figs are judged to the grave and later brought forth. The good figs are acceptable.

Comment: The “many dead bodies” of verse 3 show the Holy Remnant will be small.

Reply: Yes. The “many” will not be acceptable. This message is not given today because it is unpopular. The Jews do not want to hear about another holocaust. However, the future holocaust will be selective, whereas the previous one was man’s inhumanity to Jews and to some Christians and other ethnic groups.

Q: Will verse 7, “The LORD hath sworn by the excellency of Jacob,” fit into the false peace period of the future when the Jews will have confidence in themselves and their own power, which will be obnoxious to the Lord?

A: Yes. The summer fruit is ripe for judgment, but the fruit is both good and bad, both bitter and sweet. Those who repent and are converted in the bitter experience will be the spared Holy Remnant.

Amos 8:11 Behold, the days come, saith the Lord GOD, that I will send a famine in the land, not a famine of bread, nor a thirst for water, but of hearing the words of the LORD:

Amos 8:12 And they shall wander from sea to sea, and from the north even to the east, they shall run to and fro to seek the word of the LORD, and shall not find it.

Q: Do verses 11 and 12 have multiple applications? There was a famine for the Word of the Lord during the Diaspora, as shown by the Parable of the Rich Man and Lazarus, but is there also a future application when some will desire information after the Little Flock is off the scene?

A: Yes. Verses 11 and 12 show a desire for scriptural instruction. This element will panic and want divine instruction when they see the enemy horde (Gog) preparing to enter the land.

Those desiring information will not necessarily be the righteous element, for their desire will be based on fear with regard to what is happening. The time setting is shortly before Jacob’s Trouble because once Jacob’s Trouble begins, events will occur so rapidly that there will be no time to seek information. The ominous enemy horde will be on the horizon. Ezekiel 38:16 says a great “cloud” will cause this anxiety. The “feasts” and “songs” of joy will cease (verse 10).

Q: During parts of a three-year period, the sons of the prophets will ask Elisha where Elijah has gone and will search for his body. Do verses 11 and 12 apply to a narrower period of time, that is, to the end of that three-year period?

A: Yes. The ominous enemy cloud will already be on the horizon. Generally speaking, though not in every instance, the Holy Remnant, as a class, will have already received the message. In other words, prior to Gog’s coming down, the Holy Remnant will be receptive to information.

Verses 11 and 12 describe a panic situation in which the inquirers will ask, “Is there a way out?” Several Old Testament Scriptures mention this panic period, but at that time, instruction will not be given. Isaiah 10:28-32 describes the enemy going from city to city to city, getting closer and closer to Jerusalem.

Comment: The rest of the Gentile nations will be in anarchy at this time.

Those who earlier turned a deaf ear to scriptural messages and were stubborn will lack information at this time. When they see the enemy actually approaching, they will panic. A drowning man looks for help, but that does not mean his character and heart condition are right.

“They shall wander from sea to sea [from the Mediterranean to the Dead Sea].” In other words, they will wander from west to east (or from east to west, as we would say).

“They shall wander … from the north even to the east.” This statement is an anomaly, for we usually say “from north to south.” “They shall run to and fro to seek the word of the LORD, and shall not find it.” Hence this class will not be informed.

Q: Would the “north even to the east” direction indicate that Gilead will be seized in Israel’s sound defeat of her Arab neighbors shortly prior to Jacob’s Trouble?

A: Gilead will be acquired later and not through warfare. When Israel is so overcrowded, people will break into Gilead. This former territory of the 2 1/2 tribes across Jordan is actually in the deed as part of Israel’s rightful territory. Gilead will be inhabited in the Kingdom Age.

Nevertheless, the class that wants information may inquire in Gilead. The “north to east” direction is strange. In other words, this class will look for information wherever they can get it. The only thing to the east is the Jordan River and beyond.

Q: When the Philistines invaded and Samuel died, there was no word from the Lord. In panic, King Saul went to the witch of Endor for information. Would this future panic-stricken class likewise seek information from wise men of the East?

A: If information is sought after the nuclear warfare—for example, if Damascus and other capital cities were obliterated—there would be utter confusion in those nations. If Israel drastically defeats its Arab neighbors, the Jews could just walk in and take territory. Perhaps this class will seek information there. Who knows? Verses 11 and 12 are describing panicstricken, blinded people, not the Holy Remnant. Traditionally, the East is known for wisdom. If this class of Jews does seek information from the East in this sense, they will not be looking to God.

The setting of verses 11 and 12 is immediately prior to Jacob’s Trouble, following almost three years of all kinds of trouble. Jews who have not been thinking of God in their daily living but have been concentrating only on pleasure, sports, business, etc., and thus are not familiar with their own heritage, will perhaps seek information from a “witch of Endor” or guru type. Isaiah 8:19,20 does suggest that occult sources will be consulted for information. ”And when they shall say unto you, Seek unto them that have familiar spirits, and unto wizards that peep and that mutter, should not a people seek unto their God?… To the law and to the testimony: if they speak not according to this word, it is because there is no light in them.” We usually apply this Scripture to the nominal Church only, but it could have additional ramifications. The context mentions wandering in hunger through the land. There is definitely a spiritual application for the nominal Church, but there seems to be an application to natural Israel as well. Information will be sought everywhere but the right place—and too late!

Q: Won’t the communications and transportation network be disrupted? How could the Jews seek information outside of their own borders at that time?

A: Confusion and trouble will be worldwide, but that does not mean there will be no food or communication at all.

Comment: Another translation uses the word “staggering” instead of “wandering.”

Reply: The people will be seeking information, so the stumbling is figurative. They will not know where to go—they will be without direction.

Comment: At this time, the fallen angels will be very active. Materializations could add to the confusion.

Reply: Even the Great Company will be phasing out at this time because Jacob’s Trouble will be imminent, and they will not be on the scene for that event. Satan will take the scapegoat out into the wilderness. Two parts (Little Flock and Great Company) will be cut out of the land, and the third part (Israel) will go through fire and a great purging process (Zech. 13:8,9). This future holocaust will be selective, whereas the holocaust of World War II was not.

Comment: Part of the responsibility of the Great Company after the Little Flock is gone will be to give an instructional message to Israel. Therefore, when verse 12 says the unrighteous class of Jews will not find information, it means that the Great Company will be off the scene or almost so.

Reply: Yes, a precise small period of time is being referred to.

Amos 8:13 In that day shall the fair virgins and young men faint for thirst.

Comment: The “fair virgins and young men” are the strongest in society. The elderly, young children, and infants usually perish first. This prophecy shows the severity of conditions.

Reply: It is true that young adults usually fare better. All strata of society in Israel will be affected. The young adults will be looking for information, but they are not accustomed to looking to the God of Israel. They have been cultured to look to their own false gods.

Amos 8:14 They that swear by the sin of Samaria, and say, Thy god, O Dan, liveth; and, The manner of Beer-sheba liveth; even they shall fall, and never rise up again.

At Dan was the northernmost god, a golden calf. The other golden calf was at Bethel, farther south, as set up by Jeroboam. Here the two are referred to as Dan and Beer-sheba, instead of Dan and Bethel.

This Beer-sheba marked the southern extremity of the northern kingdom. (“Beer-sheba” is usually the one at the southern end of Judah, at the Negev desert.) In the ten-tribe kingdom, Bethel was the southernmost extremity of a focalized place of worship. Jacob’s Bethel corresponds to this Bethel of the northern kingdom. A covenant was made with Jacob in Bethel, and a covenant was made with Abraham in Beer-sheba. In other words, there was a Beer-sheba in the ten tribes and a Beer-sheba in the two tribes. Proof of this statement is that the ten-tribes would not have gone to the southern edge of Judah to worship. Bethel, the place where Jacob had his dream of a ladder, is the important location Jeroboam selected as the site for the golden calf. The capital of the ten-tribe kingdom was Samaria, but at this time in Amos’s ministry, royalty (the king) had a residence in Bethel, which was convenient for him to participate in the false religious services. The ten tribes thought of Jacob as being more faithful than Abraham. Of course for the two-tribe kingdom, Jerusalem was both the religious and the political capital. However, the king of the ten-tribe kingdom had a palace in Bethel, even though the capital was Samaria.

Q: Does the expression “even they shall fall, and never rise up again” indicate that all false religion will cease worldwide? The nominal Church will cease earlier, prior to Jacob’s Trouble.

A: The Christendom picture is one application, but there is another application with regard to the natural ten-tribe kingdom and also the soon-to-come end of the age. Those who so harden themselves in the present life will have an extremely difficult time repenting, even when they are given a full opportunity in the Kingdom Age. By hardening themselves now, they are greatly jeopardizing themselves with regard to the future. Notice that in this context, the people were not hardening themselves against Christ but against God Himself. With Christ, the hardening can be a case of blindness and inbred culture that he is a false Messiah. But to look elsewhere and not to worship God is a very serious situation. As a rule, this class will fail to get life. Of the incorrigible in the Kingdom, Proverbs 24:16 says that a sinner given seven opportunities will fail. Another Scripture about the incorrigible is Isaiah 26:10, “Let favour be shown to the wicked, yet will he not learn righteousness: in the land of uprightness will he deal unjustly, and will not behold the majesty of the LORD.” Such individuals will not have the proper reverential attitude in the Kingdom Age.

Only the Holy Remnant will be praying to God and have the right heart condition prior to Jacob’s Trouble. And theirs will not be a deathbed repentance, for they will hearken earlier. The witness to Israel will eventually bear fruit by strengthening the Holy Remnant class.


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