Phillipians Chapter 4: Love of the Brethren

Nov 2nd, 2009 | By | Category: Philippians, Verse by Verse --Studies led by Br. Frank Shallieu (Click on Book name)

Phillipians Chapter 4: Love of the Brethren

Phil. 4:1 Therefore, my brethren dearly beloved and longed for, my joy and crown, so stand fast in the Lord, my dearly beloved.

Notice the affectionate, tender terms Paul used for the Philippian brethren: “dearly beloved” (used twice) and “longed for.” These expressions were not only unusual but also more affectionate than those he wrote to the other churches. Paul’s regard for the Philippians was additionally confirmed by the expression “My joy and [my] crown”; that is, the ecclesia at Philippi was the crowning feature of his ministry and thus was probably his favorite church. Elsewhere he said of the churches in Asia Minor, “All they which are in Asia be turned away from me” (2 Tim. 1:15). Although that was a general statement, it shows that Paul did not have the “joy and crown” feeling toward the other churches in that area.

Phil. 4:2 I beseech Euodias, and beseech Syntyche, that they be of the same mind in the Lord.

These two sisters were singled out by name. Evidently, there was some sort of friction or misunderstanding between the two. Paul urged them to “be of the same mind,” so evidently, the difference was not a serious doctrinal dispute. Probably it had to do with either personality or method and procedure (how to do something). Although not serious yet, the problem could become so if not resolved.

For the second time in this epistle, Paul said to be of one (“the same”) mind (Phil. 2:2). Earlier Paul urged the class as a whole to be of one mind. Now he got more specific and named the two sisters. Vainglory and self-interest should not be motives of the new creature.

Phil. 4:3 And I entreat thee also, true yokefellow, help those women which laboured with me in the gospel, with Clement also, and with other my fellowlabourers, whose names are in the book of life.

Verse 3 provides an interesting insight. The pronoun “thee” refers to “true yokefellow,” which was the proper name of a person in the ecclesia. The name in the Greek, Syzygus, means “coyoked” (“yokefellow” or “companion”). Paul commended this individual as being true (or loyal), faithful, and trustworthy. To illustrate: this person would be like someone named John Carpenter, who was an excellent carpenter.

Paul entreated this particular brother to help the two sisters to “be of the same mind in the Lord.” How interesting that Paul singled out an individual in the class to moderate the situation! But why him? Perhaps he had more common sense and was more levelheaded than some of the others and had demonstrated loyalty. Probably he was an individual both sisters respected and looked up to. Selecting such a one showed wisdom, for the dispute could not be resolved if the individual had taken sides with one of the sisters. The brother would have to be impartial.

Paul could have omitted the names of the two sisters, but he chose instead to have them recorded in history. At the same time, however, he moderated the criticism by saying they had “laboured” with him in the gospel. Paul’s course was admirable in that he mentioned the good points as well. We, too, should follow this policy unless, of course, the individuals become enemies of the truth.

Paul also named Clement as one who labored with him. No doubt Clement was an outstanding laborer among the other brethren. Therefore, Paul named two women and two men in the class: Euodias, Syntyche, Yokefellow (Syzygus), and Clement. And there were other “fellowlabourers” in the class.

Why did Paul say, “Whose names are in the book of life”? He considered all of the brethren in the class in an honorable sense, including Euodias and Syntyche. The nature of Paul’s criticism was to moderate the situation lest it develop into a more hazardous condition later on. The “book of life” is a very large, thick book with many, many pages. The names of all mankind, when they come forth from the womb and are born alive, are entered in the book of life, which has various categories. Different destinations of great honor, less honor, etc., will eventually be either achieved or not achieved. Not only are there various levels of life (divine, spirit, human), but there are gradations of honor within a level or category. Every person who was ever born must hear about Jesus, either in this life or the next, and will have an opportunity to get life, for Jesus tasted death “for every man” (Heb. 2:9). When a person consecrates in the Gospel Age, his name is transferred to the divine nature (Little Flock) chapter. It can be left there, transferred to the Great Company chapter, or blotted out (Second Death).

Paul viewed all of the Philippian brethren favorably in that their names were still in the book of life. He recognized them as true brethren, true fellow laborers, and true yokefellows but was giving advice especially to help the two sisters. Probably Clement was mentioned by name because he was prominent. No doubt the named brethren were of special help when Paul visited their locale—Clement, Yokefellow, and Epaphroditus (verse 18).

The absence of serious problems in this epistle is very apparent. In the epistles to the Corinthians and the Galatians, for example, Paul exposed a dangerous element that was causing severe problems. The Philippian class was Paul’s “crown and joy,” and he hoped it would remain such.

Phil. 4:4 Rejoice in the Lord always: and again I say, Rejoice.

Why did Paul say, “Rejoice in the Lord always: and again I say, Rejoice”? If the problem between the two sisters got aggravated and perpetuated, it would affect some of the rejoicing aspect of serving the Lord.

The emphasis in verse 4 should be on the phrase “in the Lord.” Paul was telling the brethren to look above the problem. We are all serving the Lord. If we can view matters in this higher sublime light, many differences will disappear. We should constantly rejoice in the Lord— always—but a factional dispute interrupts the rejoicing.

We use this verse frequently, signing it in letters and cards, etc. That is all right, but in the setting here, its intended use was quite different.

“In the Lord” is the key phrase because we cannot always rejoice, but we can always rejoice in the Lord. For example, “Now no chastening for the present seemeth to be joyous, but grievous: nevertheless afterward it yieldeth the peaceable fruit of righteousness unto them which are exercised thereby” (Heb. 12:11). And Paul criticized the Corinthian class for not mourning, for it was wrong for them to rejoice under their circumstances (1 Cor. 5:2). Therefore, verse 4 has a particular application in context. Taken out of context, it is still a good Scripture, however.

Phil. 4:5 Let your moderation be known unto all men. The Lord is at hand.

“Let your moderation be known unto all men.” These words were very meaningful to the situation with the two sisters. “Moderation,” which means reasonableness, yielding, and pliability, is to be followed where no principle is involved. Compromise was proper for the difference that existed in the Philippian ecclesia.

“The Lord is at hand [near]”; that is, everything we do is observed by the Lord. (Incidentally, this statement is not stressing the nearness in time of the Lord’s return.) Keeping in mind that the Lord is present in the sense of observing what is going on will help us to be reasonable. He is not so far away that he is unaware of what is happening. We will be more circumspect if we remember the Lord is viewing all matters. Verse 5 fits in nicely with verse 4: “Rejoice in the Lord. He is near—he is aware of what is going on.”

Taken out of context, an application of “moderation” is sometimes said to mean, “Avoid extremes in lifestyles.” Moderation of behavior or action is also a good principle. “Moderation” has been defined as “sweet reasonableness where principles are not involved.” It is nice to know what Paul had in mind when he wrote the Epistle to the Philippians, but from there, we can branch out into other avenues of our experience or the experiences of others to draw additional lessons.

Phil. 4:6 Be careful for nothing; but in every thing by prayer and supplication with thanksgiving let your requests be made known unto God.

“Be careful for nothing.” “Do not be overanxious” is the thought. We should be circumspect and careful in some matters but not “full of care.”

This advice fit the Philippian situation, for if they got involved in a difference of opinion that did not center around a serious doctrine or a Christian principle, they were not to become overanxious about the difference. Paul was telling them not to let the situation disturb or distract them inordinately from rejoicing in the Lord and thus cause them to make immoderate statements about others.

“But in every thing by prayer and supplication with thanksgiving let your requests be made known unto God.” Not only individually but as a class, this difference should have been taken to the Lord in prayer; then harmony would be restored. Prayer is important and helpful in times of crisis, large or small, so that good will result from every experience.

“Supplication,” an earnest pleading, is more intense prayer over a matter that is somber and serious. When Jesus supplicated in the Garden of Gethsemane, even his posture was affected, for he prostrated himself on the ground. Prayer and supplication are in order in proportion as we see an inherent danger that might develop as a result of a continuing situation.

Prayer and supplication should be made “with thanksgiving,” but how? (1) We should remember past and current blessings and overrulings. (2) We should remember good qualities about other brethren (such as with these two sisters). (3) We should be thankful that we can come to the Lord in prayer and leave our burdens with him. And (4) we should be thankful, come what may. There is a hymn, “Send sorrow; send pain. Sweet are thy messengers, and sweet their refrain.” These sentiments are scriptural because in the Song of Solomon, the Bride class says, “Awake, O north wind; and come, thou south; blow upon my garden, that the spices thereof may flow out” (Song 4:16). In other words, mixed experiences, the bitter and the sweet, are necessary to develop the Christian so that mind and heart can be exercised. Trials develop the new creature, even if they are distressing. Therefore, we should rejoice in the Lord, for afterward comes the peaceable fruit of righteousness. Divisions must occur so that those who are approved of God might be made manifest. “Divisions” can be a complete rupture or merely a difference of opinion and/or action; that is, problems are necessary to give us an opportunity to apply the lessons and principles in God’s Word. If everyone involved entered the experience with prayer, supplication, and thanksgiving, probably half of the problems would be alleviated right away.

We should be thankful for our trials of faith. Peter said that the trial of our faith is much more precious than gold that perishes (1 Pet. 1:7). If faithfully reacted to, the trial becomes a proof of our faith. The trial, or experience, is valuable, even though it may be heart-rending.

Comment: We should not be overanxious about anything. In everything, we are to go to the Lord in prayer.

Reply: There is a good example in the Old Testament of being overanxious. When the Ark of the Covenant was being transported, Uzzah was fearful that it would fall on the ground. When he put out his hand to steady the Ark, he was smitten dead (2 Sam. 6:1-7). There are different laws, and some are higher than others. The higher law takes precedent over the lower one. The lower law would say that Uzzah did right to steady the Ark. Ostensibly, he was just being solicitous for the Lord’s cause and Ark and trying to be helpful. However, there are things we cannot be overanxious about but must trust God and His providence—that it will work out for good to those who love Him and respond to His leadings (Rom. 8:28).

When a major decision faces us, there can be a degree of anxiety (but not overanxiety) in trying to determine the Lord’s will—that is, until some assurance comes. Concern is proper but not overconcern. We can be anxious to the extent of prayer and supplication. Proper concern urges us to this action, whereas overconcern leads to distraction and inaction. Proper concern spurs us on to prayer and leaving things in the Lord’s hands.

Phil. 4:7 And the peace of God, which passeth all understanding, shall keep your hearts and minds through Christ Jesus.

“The peace of God, which passeth all [human, worldly] understanding, shall keep your hearts and minds through Christ Jesus.” Verse 7 is a natural outgrowth of verse 6. When we go to the Lord in prayer and leave everything in His hands, His peace will come to us. The peace the Christian has the world lacks and cannot understand.

The peace of God will “keep [guard, or be a sentinel over] your hearts and minds through Christ Jesus.” If we comply with the admonition regarding prayer and supplication with thanksgiving, the peace of God will act as a guard, or sentinel, to challenge every hostile thought threatening to disturb our heart and mind. Hence the peace of God protects our heart and mind lest we become discouraged or despondent, forsake the way, etc.

Phil. 4:8 Finally, brethren, whatsoever things are true, whatsoever things are honest, whatsoever things are just, whatsoever things are pure, whatsoever things are lovely, whatsoever things are of good report; if there be any virtue, and if there be any praise, think on these things.

What our mind feeds on has a lot to do with the outcome of our destiny. The new creature is what he allows to be entertained in his mind, what he allows to be resident there. This advice is a general rule, for sometimes we must consider unpleasant things because they are based on principles that are violated. However, we cannot make a steady diet of what is unpleasant, or we will become hypercritical.

In verse 8, Paul was presenting a standard for living. He did not say we can never think on something that involves dishonesty or impurity, but if these things occur in the Church, they must be considered from a detached standpoint, for we are not to feed on them. The Song of Solomon says the little ones feed upon the lilies (Song 2:16). “Lilies” are emblematic of all these qualities: the true, the honest, the just, the pure, the beautiful or lovely, and the good reports.

Lilies are even a symbol of the resurrection.

It is true that we experience low periods—even the Apostle Paul did—but not to the point of utter despair. He felt his low periods were necessary so that he could counsel others. “Who comforteth us in all our tribulation, that we may be able to comfort them which are in any trouble, by the comfort wherewith we ourselves are comforted of God” (2 Cor. 1:4).

“True” is the first prerequisite mentioned. Although the other qualities are not in either an ascending or a descending order, whether a matter is true should be the first determinant. The basis, or premise, in both doctrine and conduct must be true in order to merit consideration. For the end of verse 8, the Diaglott has, “Attentively consider these things.” This listing is not all we should think on, but primarily and generally these qualities should apply.

We need a balanced spiritual diet. For example, we may get involved in a doctrinal dispute where we have to maintain the standard of truth, but if we live in an atmosphere of constant controversy and trouble and thus do not feed on the more wholesome thoughts, we will be adversely affected.

If an elder is always criticizing others, if his message is not constructive and wholesome but is always faultfinding, that situation is dangerous. We must feed on the pure, honest, lovely, etc., thoughts in order to be properly grounded in the faith. Our time should not be taken up inordinately in one direction. Our attentive consideration should be on the weightier matters of the Law. “You … have omitted the weightier matters of the law, judgment, mercy, and faith: these ought ye to have done, and not to leave the other undone” (Matt. 23:23).

Phil. 4:9 Those things, which ye have both learned, and received, and heard, and seen in me, do: and the God of peace shall be with you.

We follow Paul to the extent that he followed Jesus. What is the distinction between “learned” and “received”? Paul was the teacher. When he was in their midst, the Philippians became familiar with his thinking and teaching, but accepting these “things” was a separate matter. To “learn” and then “receive” in this context means they found Paul’s teaching to be scriptural. Therefore, they accepted his advice as part of their faith.

In another context, the thought of “receiving” could be different. For example, the Bereans were considered more noble than those of Thessalonica because they “received” (listened carefully to) what Paul said and then searched the Scriptures daily to see whether it was so; that is, they received the truth with an open mind and then proved it by the Scriptures (Acts 17:11). Here Paul said the Philippians “learned” (understood what he was teaching) and then “received” (accepted) it.

Paul taught the Philippians by both doctrine and example (by his life and/or behavior). They “heard” doctrine and instruction, and then “saw,” or observed, his manner of life. The next step was to “receive” (accept) both the doctrine and Paul’s example, and then to “do,” or practice, these things (that is, they continued to do them).

If they practiced “those things,” then “the God of peace” would be with them. In verse 7, Paul spoke of “the peace of God”; now he referred to “the God of peace.”

A recent discourse discussed the wrong kind of peace, the peace of complacency. The peace of God can be described as a clear “conscience void of offence toward God” (Acts 24:16). If the conscience is not clear, then God has aught against the individual, and the peace is marred to a greater or lesser degree. But if we try to do God’s will to the best of our ability, we know God is dealing with us, and we have inner peace and His mercy and grace. In proportion as one offends, the offense is a rupture of the peace.

“Peace” can be viewed either from the standpoint of how God thinks of us or from our standpoint as the recipient of peace. Both standpoints are important, for we want to have His peace, and we want Him to be peaceful with us. Stated another way, we want to be at peace with Him, and we want Him to be at peace with us.

Jesus gave a lesson to the apostles with regard to washing their feet. What they saw him do, they were to likewise do. Jesus said, “If ye know these things, happy are ye if ye do them” (John 13:17). In other words, their peace would be fulfilled by doing what Jesus did, and at the same time, God would be pleased. It works both ways.

Phil. 4:10 But I rejoiced in the Lord greatly, that now at the last your care of me hath flourished again; wherein ye were also careful, but ye lacked opportunity.

The Philippians had helped Paul several times in the past. Then came a cessation in assistance.

Now that they were again helping, Paul rejoiced—not so much for his own sake but because it was adding fruit to their character (Phil. 4:17).

But why was there a temporary halt in assistance? The Philippians did not know where Paul was. Then Epaphroditus made a special effort to find Paul. He methodically visited and searched the prisons in Rome until he found Paul. Of course when Epaphroditus inquired at the prisons, it was obvious he was sympathetic to Christianity. Thus he exposed himself to danger, risking his own life.

The account in Acts 24:24-27 reveals the reason why Felix kept asking Paul to come back. He was interested not in the truth but in Paul’s money. He evidently knew that Paul had come into a lot of money. (Paul inherited a large sum from his family. Earlier, however, he had to work  with his own hands to support himself.) In Rome, Paul was put under house arrest, a courtesy extended to very few prisoners. Most were put in the dungeon and could not have visitors.

Notice that the Philippians were “careful” about giving money to Paul, even though they lacked opportunity. “Careful” has the thought of “mindful” or “concerned.” In other words, they continuously kept him in mind, but he did not need anything under his present circumstance, for he had board and keep while under “house arrest.” Now they had sent a messenger to tell Paul of their love and concern for him, and they also sent a gift of some kind.

Phil. 4:11 Not that I speak in respect of want: for I have learned, in whatsoever state I am, therewith to be content.

Phil. 4:12 I know both how to be abased, and I know how to abound: every where and in all things I am instructed both to be full and to be hungry, both to abound and to suffer need.

Paul was not complaining, for he was “content” even under these circumstances. He was a living example that “godliness with contentment is great gain” (1 Tim. 6:6).

Paul “learned” in whatever state he was in to be content—in other words, this attitude did not come automatically. A number of experiences taught him this attitude. The Diaglott translation reads, “I have been disciplined, both to be well fed and to suffer hunger,” and the interlinear has, “I have been initiated [through humbling experiences].” We are not to conclude that Paul was insensitive to his needs and experiences, for he was not a stoic, but he disciplined himself to take them properly.

Paul had all extremes of experience. The harsh experiences are listed in 2 Corinthians 11:23-28. Despite these hardships, contentment was Paul’s normal attitude. Although he also had moments of depression, he never felt utterly cast down or forsaken (2 Cor. 4:8,9).

Even Jesus, the perfect one, experienced depression, for example, when he was in the Garden of Gethsemane and on the Cross (Matt. 26:36,37; 27:46). It is a wrong premise to say that a faithful, loyal Christian never has a low period. But the way of life, the general attitude, should be one of contentment, peace, and joy. Otherwise, the Christian is living below his privileges.

Incidentally, Paul was in his sixties now. He called himself “aged” in Philemon 9.

Phil. 4:13 I can do all things through Christ which strengtheneth me.

Paul could endure all the hard experiences and persecutions through the strength he received from Christ.

Phil. 4:14 Notwithstanding ye have well done, that ye did communicate with my affliction.

Paul’s “affliction” included the whole gamut of his experiences. The Philippian brethren had always communicated with him as much as they could when opportunity afforded, and Paul commended them for this attitude. For “that ye did communicate with my affliction,” the Diaglott interlinear has “having jointly sympathized with me in the affliction.” Currently, while under house arrest, Paul received concern from them. Earlier, as needed, he received money.

Now he was happy that the ties of communication had been restored and that they would know of each other’s welfare. Epaphroditus would take word back to Philippi.

Phil. 4:15 Now ye Philippians know also, that in the beginning of the gospel, when I departed from Macedonia, no church communicated with me as concerning giving and receiving, but ye only.

Paul was not saying that no church ever communicated with him, but in the missionary journey where he had a dream and went over to Macedonia and on from there, only the church at Philippi was “giving and receiving.” What does “receiving” mean? The Philippians readily received Paul’s advice and the wonderful truths he declared, hearkening to the instruction. Paul had to write to the Corinthians more than once on the same issue, but the Philippian brethren were submissive and responsive. Also, they received a blessing from their giving to Paul. Their hearts, characters, and attitudes were all blessed by the giving. The principle is that the Lord does not need our money, but we need to give it to Him.

There is a fullness of meaning here because the Philippians’ giving was not just along monetary lines. It included sympathy, interest, love, and concern, plus money. In return, they got Paul’s sympathy, interest, love, and concern. He remembered them in prayer and wrote a letter to express his feelings. On the other hand, if he labored in that area for a year and then left without manifesting any further interest, the communication would have deadened both ways.

Thus the giving and the receiving were a two-way rapport.

The Philippian brethren were laying up treasure in heaven by their love and concern for Paul. They were storing up “credit” with God for the day of the Lord’s appearance. Their consistency of giving was not equaled by any other church. The others gave only sporadically if at all. Paul labored over the Philippian brethren like a mother, and seeing their development gave him great satisfaction. He especially appreciated them because they seemed to respond more than any other ecclesia. They were his “joy and crown” (Phil. 4:1).

Phil. 4:16 For even in Thessalonica ye sent once and again unto my necessity.

Why did Paul use the word “even”? The brethren in Thessalonica should have been taking care of Paul, but instead the Philippian brethren showed the concern. They responded naturally from the heart because of the many spiritual blessings they had received. Even though a little distance away, the Philippians were longing and pining for Paul.

Phil. 4:17 Not because I desire a gift: but I desire fruit that may abound to your account.

Paul desired fruit that would abound to the Philippians’ account. Their love and concern for Paul were laying up treasure in their account, for God and Jesus were taking cognizance of their attitude. “So then every one of us shall give account of himself to God” (Rom. 14:12). “For we shall all stand before the judgment seat of Christ” (Rom. 14:10). We will receive a grade as determined in God’s sight. There are gradations in glory and honor, but of course the first and most important factor is acceptance.

Phil. 4:18 But I have all, and abound: I am full, having received of Epaphroditus the things which were sent from you, an odour of a sweet smell, a sacrifice acceptable, wellpleasing to God.

The sacrifice of the Philippians ascended up like the smoke of the court sacrifice. Epaphroditus was the messenger who came from Philippi to search out Paul while he was under house arrest in Rome. In the process, Epaphroditus became ill “nigh unto death” (Phil. 2:27). Consequently, there was a delay—a long passage of time—before the Philippians got a response.

The “things” Epaphroditus brought were the love, concern, and affection of the Philippian brethren, plus information on how the Lord was dealing with them. Paul welcomed this information.

Phil. 4:19 But my God shall supply all your need according to his riches in glory by Christ Jesus.

The brethren had supplied Paul’s need, and his God would supply all their need. All spiritual necessities will be supplied in the present life.

There are actually two thoughts here, and both are helpful. (1) Both God and Jesus are capable of supplying the Christian’s need in the present life. (2) While the Christian may not prosper in this life in a way that is evident, he will be showered with blessings when he receives his change and is glorified in the next life.

Phil. 4:20 Now unto God and our Father be glory for ever and ever. Amen.

Paul emphasized the Father. Glory be to Him throughout eternity, “for ever and ever” (Greek aionion aionion).

Phil. 4:21 Salute every saint in Christ Jesus. The brethren which are with me greet you.

Verse 21 is like saying, “Send my love to all the brethren there.” None were to be left out. Paul’s advice, admonition, and encouragement were intended for all, for he was concerned that each one would prosper spiritually.

Phil. 4:22 All the saints salute you, chiefly they that are of Caesar’s household.

Why did Paul insert the word “chiefly”? (1) He was calling attention to how the gospel was furthered even into Caesar’s household (Phil. 1:12,13). (2) Probably the brethren in Caesar’s household met with Paul more often than the other Roman brethren because of being so close to him. (3) And most importantly, Paul’s missionary journey had started in Philippi. Paul would have told the brethren of Caesar’s household how, in vision, a man in Macedonia had beckoned him to come over, but when he went to Philippi, he was imprisoned. Although Paul and Silas were put in a dungeon, they sang hymns. Suddenly an earthquake miraculously opened the doors of the dungeon. The jailer’s life would have been at stake if any of the prisoners had escaped. However, all stayed there (as if in shock), and the jailer was able to lock them up again. The point is that the whole jail aspect of Paul’s experience in Philippi, with the miraculous deliverance which resulted in the conversion of the jailer and his household, produced an affinity and bond with the brethren of Caesar’s household in Rome, where Paul was again in prison. Just as the Philippian jailer and his household had been converted, so some in Caesar’s household became Christians. The settings were somewhat similar.

Phil. 4:23 The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you all. Amen.

* * * * *

Addendum on Epaphroditus

Another individual in the New Testament has a name identical in meaning to Epaphroditus, although it is restructured Epaphras (Col. 1:7; 4:12; Philem. 23). It is very likely these two were the same individual, as circumstances of their backgrounds seem to bear out. The Epistle to the Colossians tells where he came from originally, and the Epistle to the Philippians just revealed that he was sent as a messenger from Philippi to Paul. He longed to return to Philippi after delivering the message, but he was sick. Two others—Onesimus and Onesiphorus—could also have been the same individual.

In both cases, the names are in different epistles. Paul dictated to various helpers, so depending on who wrote a particular epistle, the names were spelled differently (Latin, Hebrew, or Greek forms). Unless we realize that the same individuals are referred to, we lose the concept of the close-knit society back there.

1985

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