Ephesians Chapter 5: Walking as Children of the Light, Relationships

Dec 6th, 2009 | By | Category: Ephesians, Verse by Verse --Studies led by Br. Frank Shallieu (Click on Book name)

Ephesians Chapter 5: Walking as Children of the Light, Relationships

Eph. 5:1 Be ye therefore followers of God, as dear children;

Eph. 5:2 And walk in love, as Christ also hath loved us, and hath given himself for us an offering and a sacrifice to God for a sweetsmelling savour.

“Be ye therefore followers of God, as dear children; And walk in love, as Christ also hath loved us.” Why did Paul use this analogy? Generally speaking, the Epistle to the Ephesians is slanted more to God as the Author of all blessings, directing the priority of praise to Him. Way before the beginning of creation, God had a plan in mind (Eph. 1:4; 3:9-11).

Comment: Usually we think of following in Jesus’ footsteps, but Paul went a step higher here: “Be … followers of God.

Reply: From the Christian standpoint, Jesus is pictured as either an elder brother among brethren or as the Bridegroom with an espoused virgin (a husband-wife relationship). But verse 1 goes higher, to the Father, whom Jesus followed.

Comment: The Diaglott has, “Become therefore imitators of God.”

Reply: Yes, and Jesus said, “Be ye therefore perfect, even as your Father which is in heaven is perfect” (Matt. 5:48).

We are to “walk in love, as Christ also hath loved us, and hath given himself for us an offering and a sacrifice to God for a sweetsmelling savour.”

Q: Verses 1 and 2 emphasize Christ’s love for the Father being so great that he sacrificed himself for us. Is this thought to be extended as follows? If we are following God as dear children and walking in love as Christ did, is the implication that, with the oneness of the body, we should sacrifice ourselves for one another?

A: That is true as long as principle is not violated. Personal preference can often be sacrificed.

Jesus gave himself for us, but that offering and sacrifice were to God (“for a sweetsmelling savour”). Our dedication to God should lead us to a life of sacrifice and a life of pleasing Him.

Our daily walk should be in harmony with our love for God. In proportion as we regard God, we will try to please Him.

Christ is our example. He loved the Father so much that even though he did not understand all matters, he came down here and died on behalf of the Church. True, he had an interest in the future Church and humanity, but basically speaking, his fealty to God was the sum and substance of his devotion. His offering and sacrifice showed and proved his dedication to God (rather than to humanity and the Church). In other words, God is the Author of the plan. He is the One who so loved the world that He gave His only Son. True, Jesus also had a love for the world and his future Church in order to actually come down here and obey the Law and submit to being nailed to the Cross, but the whole plan was initiated by God. It was His thinking that Jesus imbibed, or caught the spirit of, because of his respect for his Father. If we love a person and highly regard him, we begin to think and act like that person.

Jesus did love us and give himself for us, but the basic motivation was a response to the suggestion of God to come down here and die. Jesus did not presume to be the High Priest, but he was called, as Aaron was, to this purpose (Heb. 5:4). The Epistle to the Ephesians goes one step higher and centers everything in God in a special sense.

Eph. 5:3 But fornication, and all uncleanness, or covetousness, let it not be once named among you, as becometh saints;

The Christian is to put away fornication, all uncleanness, and covetousness. If we love and reverence God—if we are fully committed to Him—we will avoid anything that pertains to evil. The “fornication” of verse 3 is literal immorality along physical lines. Sexual activity outside marriage is heterosexual. “Uncleanness” is a broader term that includes homosexuality.

One translation says, “A person should not have a dirty mind.” Our thinking, musing, and meditation should be pure. “Covetousness” is envy, desiring what someone else has, greed.

The Apostle John wrote, “By this we know that we love the children of God, when we love God, and keep his commandments” (1 John 5:2). If we really love God and Christ, we prove it by our conduct and thinking—by avoiding circumstances that might entice us. We prove our love for God by obeying Him.

Because we are of Adam’s race and thus imperfect, wrong thoughts will enter our mind, but we must guard against entertaining them. It is one thing for the birds to fly over our heads, but it is another matter for them to make a nest in our hair.

Fornication, uncleanness, and covetousness are not once to be named among us, as happened in the church at Corinth (1 Corinthians 5). How can we, as a group, stop or prohibit someone from committing fornication? If it occurs, we are to deal with it and follow the scriptural procedures for disfellowshipping. One does not maintain his Christian standing if he habitually engages in fornication.

What is the significance of the word “named”? It has the thought of “become known.” “Let it [such a sin] not be once named among you, as becometh saints.” Suppose such an incident occurs among the consecrated. If the class shows their abhorrence and disgust, the public could not blame them; that is, the public could not “name” the sin as being in the class. The actions of the ecclesia would show that the sin was completely foreign to them as a responsible group. If the class did not take a strong stand, then the sin would be “named” among them because they would be held accountable for the continuance and toleration of such a condition. When the class properly and scripturally follows the disfellowshipping procedure, the vulgar sin will not be misunderstood as being tolerated or “named” among them. If false love covers up such a condition and does not scripturally deal with it, then the sin is “named” among the class. In other words, the sins are not known among us if we take the proper stand.

Eph. 5:4 Neither filthiness, nor foolish talking, nor jesting, which are not convenient: but rather giving of thanks.

In addition, we are to avoid “filthiness,” that is, bad language (cursing), derogatory innuendos, lewd comments, etc., in conversation. “Foolish talking” should be avoided as a habit. A joke can have its place, but we must be careful to use it prudently. Jokes should not be introduced into discussions of a serious, somber, sensitive nature. “Jesting” is ridicule. Jesting could take the form of pantomime and mimicking others in a degrading and derogatory manner. Many jokes that the world tells make fun of one group or another—either a religion, an ethnic group, a race, or a mental or physical condition. Such mockeries are wrong and should be avoided.

“Which are not convenient.” Paul was saying to avoid things that are not becoming, consistent, or fitting.

“But rather giving of thanks.” We are to give thanks for the Lord’s bounties, mercies, truth, and love and for avenues of escape from the particular problems enumerated in verses 3 and 4.

God has given us not only truth to feed on but also other pleasures and thoughts. We can be thankful the narrow way is not all negative. We are given positive values to offset what we might otherwise be involved in. We give thanks for being able to feed on edifying matters and the Scriptures.

Eph. 5:5 For this ye know, that no whoremonger, nor unclean person, nor covetous man, who is an idolater, hath any inheritance in the kingdom of Christ and of God.

There is a correspondency between the categories listed in verses 3 and 5. The acts of a “whoremonger” are “fornication.” An “unclean person” commits “uncleanness.” A “covetous man, who is an idolater,” is guilty of “covetousness.” How is covetousness a form of idolatry?

An idolater so intensely desires something that he makes an idol of it, and attention is distracted from the Lord and His Word. Those who are of these categories have no inheritance in the Kingdom.

Why did Paul use the term “kingdom of Christ and of God”? Why did he mention both the Father and the Son? Again we point out that the Epistle to the Ephesians especially honors God. The Kingdom is really God’s, but He turns it over to Christ for the thousand years. By mentioning the Father here, Paul showed that God is the One highest in authority. The Father is above all, even Christ.

The same criteria will apply to the world in the Kingdom. “But the fearful, and unbelieving, and the abominable, and murderers, and whoremongers, and sorcerers, and idolaters, and all liars, shall have their part in the lake which burneth with fire and brimstone: which is the second death” (Rev. 21:8). In either age—for Christians now and for the world later—these sins, if unrepented of, mean Second Death. To feed on and become incorrigibly associated with any of these sins would merit Second Death. The standards for life are the same in any age.

Eph. 5:6 Let no man deceive you with vain words: for because of these things cometh the wrath of God upon the children of disobedience.

In other words, “Let no man deceive you” about the necessity for avoiding all of the sins categorized in verses 3-5.

Q: Since Paul warned the elders of Ephesus when he met them on the isle of Miletus, was there a lowering of standards in the Ephesian church in Paul’s absence? Apparently, some were returning to the deeds of the flesh, and they were misleading the class into thinking they could compromise with sin.

A: Yes, that came out more noticeably in the Apostle John’s day. After Paul and Peter died, John became the outstanding apostle. He wrote somewhat along the line of what Paul was warning about here. Also, there were other writings in history, contemporaneous with John’s epistles and composed by other members of the early Church, that developed another type of theology, which was erroneous. The writings tried to distinguish between the new creature and the old creature. They said that the new creature was the real individual and that the old creature was the vessel in which the new creature resided. They further reasoned that the new creature was not held accountable for the deeds committed by the old creature. This reasoning was carried to such an extreme that the person could engage in all sorts of immoralities yet be considered excused or justified because the deeds were attributed to the old creature. This philosophy became a form of religion. Two or three splits occurred in the early Church at this time, all more or less following this type of thinking. The adherents contended that the Christian can live according to the flesh but walk according to the spirit. But Paul reasoned otherwise. The Christian’s daily walk and conduct affect both the new and the old creature, the inner as well as the outer man.

Sometimes an expression is used that, if pursued as a philosophy, could be dangerous; namely, “It is not what is on the outside that matters but what is on the inside.” This type of thinking can be very deceptive, for it is the seedbed for justifying immoral deeds in the new creature. It does matter what the outer man does, even though God judges us according to the inner man. The inner man should have influence over the outer man, with the result that there is more and more improvement the longer we are in the school of Christ.

“For because of these things [fornication, uncleanness, covetousness, etc.] cometh the wrath of God upon the children of disobedience.” Paul was warning not to let the spirit of the world enter the Church. We should not become partakers of evil with the world, who are characteristically “children of disobedience.” Because of their deeds, the great Time of Trouble will come on them. And if the spirit of the world enters the Church, we will be partakers of the wrath of God along with the “children of disobedience.”

This thought harmonizes with the first and second chapters of Romans, which pursue the theme that there is justification for the wrath of God to come upon men because all have the light of both conscience and nature to condemn them. The world went into all forms of uncleanness and should have known better.

Eph. 5:7 Be not ye therefore partakers with them.

“Be not ye therefore partakers with them [the children of disobedience].” If any of the consecrated loosen their walk, they lose their identity with the children of God and become children of the world again.

Eph. 5:8 For ye were sometimes darkness, but now are ye light in the Lord: walk as children of light:

Notice the different verb tenses: “For ye were [in the past] sometimes darkness, but now [at the present time] are ye light in the Lord: [so] walk [now] as children of light.” In times past, we were “darkness,” but now we are “light in the Lord.” Therefore, we “walk as children of light.”

Eph. 5:9 (For the fruit of the Spirit is in all goodness and righteousness and truth;)

Verse 9 is a parenthetical thought. The Holy Spirit is light. The Diaglott states that the fruits of the light are goodness, righteousness, and truth. If we walk as children of the light, we will develop these fruits.

With goodness, righteousness, and truth being fruits of the Holy Spirit, the thought is “all goodness and [all] righteousness and [all] truth.” These do not contradict the fruits of the Spirit listed elsewhere because, for example, “all goodness” embraces many fruits of the Spirit.

Eph. 5:10 Proving what is acceptable unto the Lord.

When the parenthetical thought of verse 9 is excluded, the combined thought of verse 8 and verse 10 is, “Walk as children of light, proving [or searching out—Diaglott] what is acceptable unto the Lord.”

Eph. 5:11 And have no fellowship with the unfruitful works of darkness, but rather reprove them.

The Christian is to have no fellowship with the unfruitful works of darkness no matter where they are found. If the unfruitful works of darkness start to encroach upon the Christian in the world (for example, at work), he has to shun or avoid them. The same would be true if unfruitful works of darkness were found in the Church. Sometimes there should be verbal disapproval, but not in every instance. Each case has to be weighed separately.

Eph. 5:12 For it is a shame even to speak of those things which are done of them in secret.

It is a shame to talk in detail of the things that are done in secret by the children of disobedience (in the world). We were called out of the world, so we should not let the world get back in the ship. The ship is in the ocean, but the ocean should not come into the ship.

Some things are so obnoxious that we should not discuss them in detail. Rather, they should be discussed only in a detached manner. Psychiatrists wrongly encourage dwelling on such matters to the minutest detail.

Eph. 5:13 But all things that are reproved are made manifest by the light: for whatsoever doth make manifest is light.

John’s Gospel sounds a little like this statement but uses the word “judgment.” When the Holy Spirit came, it revealed the works of darkness.

Eph. 5:14 Wherefore he saith, Awake thou that sleepest, and arise from the dead, and Christ shall give thee light.

The pronoun “he” should be “it,” referring to a “hymn.” The New English Bible and the Jerusalem Bible say that a “hymn” is the origin of these words. In other words, an ode or hymn was well known among early Christians, and Paul was quoting words from that source: “Awake thou that sleepest, and arise from the dead, and Christ shall give thee light.” We, too, sometimes quote a hymn when it beautifully expresses a thought in a concise way. In principle, verse 14 could also be a quote from Isaiah 60:1, although that Scripture applies to Israel. The determining factor is whether “he” or “it” is correct. With “it,” the quote would be from another saying, ode, or hymn. If “he” is correct, the reference would be to God and thus a quote from His Word.

Q: Would verse 14 be the same principle as Romans 12:1? That text, “Present your bodies a living sacrifice, holy, acceptable unto God, which is your reasonable service,” applies to both the unconsecrated (urging them to consecrate) and the consecrated (urging them to live a life of daily sacrifice throughout their consecrated life). Here Paul could have been saying to the unconsecrated, “Awake,” and to the consecrated, “You have a responsibility to walk circumspectly, for consecration is a continued walk in righteousness.”

A: Yes.

Eph. 5:15 See then that ye walk circumspectly, not as fools, but as wise,

Eph. 5:16 Redeeming the time, because the days are evil.

Eph. 5:17 Wherefore be ye not unwise, but understanding what the will of the Lord is.

We are to redeem the time for things that are edifying, worthwhile, and fitting for the Christian. Verses 16 and 17 should be combined, as in the following paraphrase: “Redeem the time, because the days are evil. Be wise and understand what the will of the Lord is.” In other words, we should make good use of the little time that is left, especially now at the end of the age. We are to be wise in the use of time and not waste it on unprofitable matters and on former practices.

Eph. 5:18 And be not drunk with wine, wherein is excess; but be filled with the Spirit;

The “wine” is literal as well as a reference to the spirit of the world. It is reasonable to say that the wine is literal because other literal practices were mentioned in verses 3-5. Verse 18 does not say, “Do not take wine—period.” The thought is, “Do not take excessive wine.” Moreover, the Christian is to be filled with the Holy Spirit, not the spirit of the world.

Eph. 5:19 Speaking to yourselves in psalms and hymns and spiritual songs, singing and making melody in your heart to the Lord;

Paul was saying to speak to one another and to ourselves (as individuals) in these things. With the Greek word kai (“and”) meaning “even,” psalms, hymns, and spiritual songs are reasonably synonymous. David and others wrote the “psalms,” which can be read or sung. “Hymns” are songs. All three terms are a way of singing and making melody in our heart to God.

Q: Here at the end of the age with so much dispensational truth due, aren’t we more apt to  speak to one another about doctrinal matters and prophecies? Is verse 19 a general rule for all Christians down the age, for in the Dark Ages, Christians had very little truth? “Hurt not the oil and the wine” was the command under the Sixth Seal (Rev. 6:6). Christians at that time had just the basics. Their fellowship would have been equally as valuable in the Lord’s eyes because of the circumstances, but it was on a different level than much of our fellowship today.

A: Yes, that is true, especially as we get nearer the end of the age. While hymns and spiritual songs are certainly always a part of worship, and should be retained, we discuss dispensational subjects today more than in the past. It is like what Hebrews 10:25 says about fellowship, which is all the more important as we see the day approaching. “Fellowship,” the communication of thought between Christians, would include doctrine and intimate communication on subjects meaningful to us at this time.

Verse 19 is general advice applicable to the Church all down the age. The babe can at least follow this instruction. He may not know advanced doctrine and truth, but he can speak and edify others and self with psalms, hymns, and spiritual songs.

Several Protestant denominations spend a great deal of time singing and relatively little time in doctrinal investigation. The singing is inspirational, but it does not develop one doctrinally.

Doctrine is needed for growth.

Eph. 5:20 Giving thanks always for all things unto God and the Father in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ;

Again the Greek kai, translated “and,” should be “even.”

Eph. 5:21 Submitting yourselves one to another in the fear of God.

The submission of verse 21 pertains to the ecclesia; that is, mutual respect and consideration should be given to one another in the ecclesia. Submission would mean giving in on certain  matters where principle is not involved. We should have mutual consideration for others “inthe fear [reverence] of God” lest we ourselves be rejected by Him.

Eph. 5:22 Wives, submit yourselves unto your own husbands, as unto the Lord.

Eph. 5:23 For the husband is the head of the wife, even as Christ is the head of the church: and he is the saviour of the body.

The assumption in verses 22 and 23 is that both husband and wife are consecrated. However, even if one is not consecrated, this principle should be followed as far as reasonably possible. To “submit” means the wife should respect and obey the husband in matters not involving conscience. Verse 21 spoke about intercommunal fellowship in the ecclesia, but now Paul was discussing communication and fellowship between husband and wife, which is a different relationship. If both are consecrated, there is an even deeper signification.

Husband and wife should recognize the mutual needs of one another, even in sexual matters. Paul was talking very delicately about the physical needs as he comprehensively treated all matters. Consideration should be given—the wife to the husband and vice versa (compare verse 24). Spiritual, temporal, and physical needs are all included here. Jesus is the “saviour of the body” in the sense that he is the Caretaker of the needs of the Church and will effect a salvation.

Eph. 5:24 Therefore as the church is subject unto Christ, so let the wives be to their own husbands in every thing.

Verse 24 is a strong statement, yet just because two are consecrated does not mean that the wife should be so submissive to her husband that she does not develop her own personality and analysis of Scripture. There might develop quite strong differences in doctrine or even in daily walk. In other words, verse 24 does not advocate rubber-stamp thinking by the wife. The ideal is given here—where the wife can so respect her husband’s analysis of Scripture that she falls in line with his thinking. However, such is not often the case, or if it is, it should not be.

If there is a difference of opinion, the manner in which the wife expresses her opinion is important. She should not be pushy and act like the head of the house. She could start, “The way I have understood the Scripture to teach is….” And the power of suggestion can be used both ways: wife to husband, and husband to wife. Due consideration should be given by each to the needs of the other.

Since Paul gave advice elsewhere to marry “in the Lord,” the counsel here in Ephesians was general advice to the consecrated (1 Cor. 7:39). Today many consecrate after marriage and thus do not have a consecrated spouse. But back there, in the early Church, the opposition to the Christian was so strong that usually either (1) both were consecrated or (2) the unconsecrated spouse separated to avoid persecution.

Today we are living in very peculiar times with regard to the marriage relationship. In fact, many just live together. We should not interpret verses 22-24 from this narrow concept of our day. These verses are general, overall advice for the Gospel Age where both husband and wife  are consecrated. If only one is consecrated, then, as already stated, this advice should befollowed as far as reasonably possible.

“Let the wives be to their own husbands in every thing.” Paul was not saying that husbands have carte blanche in every single thing. This is a general statement. Certainly a violation of principle against God and/or conscience cannot be included.

Eph. 5:25 Husbands, love your wives, even as Christ also loved the church, and gave himself for it;

Eph. 5:26 That he might sanctify and cleanse it with the washing of water by the word,

Just as Jesus wants those of his Church, or Bride, to make their calling and election sure, so the husband should have the same solicitous regard for the wife’s development as a new creature.

And the wife, on the other hand, should recognize that the husband needs help and consideration too, both physically and spiritually, the latter being the higher of the two.

Verses 25 and 26 show Christ’s solicitous behavior toward his spiritual body—his desire to be constructive, to edify, to build up. The verses express a mutual respect for one another in the highest sense of the word. Since our desire toward the fellow members of the body should be to see them make their calling and election sure, how much truer this should be with husband and wife, the closest relationship this side of the veil.

Since none of us are perfect, none of us can perfectly follow these rules in their entirety (verses 21-33) whether consecrated or not. However, we should not forget or lose sight of these values. One who is consecrated will be judged more strictly than one who is not consecrated. To balance the counsel in Paul’s First Epistle to the Corinthians, he said, “Marriage is honourable in all” (Heb. 13:4). Although he said it was better not to marry, he also said it was better to marry than to burn. Nevertheless, there would be “trouble in the flesh” (1 Cor. 7:8,9,28). Paul was saying that we are imperfect, that there is no such thing as the perfect marriage in the present life. But the closer we can come to the ideal described in his letter to the Ephesians, the more trouble will be eliminated. The fifth chapter of Ephesians helps us to see where we are wrong and to admit that we have fallen short in some respect. Without a standard and principles, we would get more and more careless and disrespectful and thus disregard the rights and considerations of others.

The women in certain regions of Asia Minor, especially Ephesus, tended to overstep their bounds because of the emphasis on Diana worship. With “Diana of the Ephesians,” the woman was idolized, creating an imbalance (Acts 19:28).

In the Syrian and Jewish ecclesias, the Orthodox Jewish background did not lead to this excess in women. Therefore, time, circumstance, and place had a bearing on the messages to the different ecclesias. Each epistle was addressed to a specific ecclesia, and the lessons we learn in studying them help us with our own needs and faults today.

Eph. 5:27 That he might present it to himself a glorious church, not having spot, or wrinkle, or any such thing; but that it should be holy and without blemish.

A “wrinkle” comes from inactivity, from sitting on our robe or sleeping in it. A “spot” is a fault or a sin not repented of. Spots get on our robe of Christ’s righteousness, but the spots can be cleansed if repentance and the asking of forgiveness follow. If not, the spot becomes a stain, and the longer the stain remains without an attempt to remove it, the more difficult removal becomes.

We get spots and/or wrinkles continuously. That is why we need to ask daily for forgiveness of God through Jesus—or even more often. If a stain sets and remains for too long, it becomes more and more a part of the garment itself. Then fuller’s soap is required—so strong it almost burns the stain off—and the garment has to be beaten and thrashed very hard in the stain area.

But a daily cleansing removes the stain more easily—from both the wrinkle and the spot. The beating and the thrashing picture the hard experiences we receive if we resist gentler correction, discipline, and advice.

Eph. 5:28 So ought men to love their wives as their own bodies. He that loveth his wife loveth himself.

Verse 28, a practical illustration, is getting closer to a reference to the Garden of Eden.

Eph. 5:29 For no man ever yet hated his own flesh; but nourisheth and cherisheth it, even as the Lord the church:

Eph. 5:30 For we are members of his body, of his flesh, and of his bones.

“For we are members of his body.” The rest of verse 30 is spurious.

Eph. 5:31 For this cause shall a man leave his father and mother, and shall be joined unto his wife, and they two shall be one flesh.

Jesus referred to this principle in Matthew 19:5 when speaking of marriage and divorce. It is a quote from Genesis 2:24. The son leaves the parental home, marries, and starts his own family.

Separating from the parents and beginning another family unit are encouraged as normal behavior approved of God, even though Paul said that to live a life entirely dedicated to the Lord in the single state is the highest form of service. But few can live a celibate life, and a vow of celibacy is extremely difficult to keep for several reasons. Other Scriptures should be considered. One should examine himself and his own needs in this regard. Marriage is preferable to burning.

Physical relations are part of marriage. Husband and wife are to be one flesh. There should not be a withholding or a reserve by one party in regard to the physical needs of the other. And children, as the product of marriage, should be encouraged under normal relationships. Paul was even more blunt in his First Epistle to the Corinthians where he advised coming together often lest one be tempted. “They two shall be one flesh” also refers to physical intimacy. But outside of marriage, such relationships are fornication.

Eph. 5:32 This is a great mystery: but I speak concerning Christ and the church.

To the world, this ideal marriage being a picture of Christ and the Church truly is a mystery.

They would not understand it, for many in the world enter marriage on a selfish basis. All the while, Paul was drawing a spiritual lesson. As it is with physical matters, so it is with spiritual matters; namely, there should be the desire to build up the new creature. Christ is the Husband and the Head, and the Church is the wife and the body. Just as Christ sacrificed himself for the Church, so the husband should sacrifice himself for the wife.

Eph. 5:33 Nevertheless let every one of you in particular so love his wife even as himself; and the wife see that she reverence her husband.

Although there is a mutual responsibility, these verses seem to put a little more emphasis or burden on the husband for initiating this ideal relationship (verses 23, 25, and 33). The husband should love his wife so that, or in order that, she can reverence him. As the head of the family, the husband is more responsible than the wife. Even when one party is not consecrated, there should be mutual consideration and regard for the interests of one another. In fact, the consecrated spouse (whether husband or wife) has the greater responsibility, but if both are consecrated, the husband has the greater responsibility.


VN:F [1.9.20_1166]
Rating: 0.0/5 (0 votes cast)
VN:F [1.9.20_1166]
Rating: 0 (from 0 votes)
Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

Leave Comment