John Chapter 11: Raising of Lazarus, Priesthood Conspires

Dec 22nd, 2009 | By | Category: John, Verse by Verse --Studies led by Br. Frank Shallieu (Click on Book name)

John Chapter 11: Raising of Lazarus, Priesthood Conspires

John 11:1 Now a certain man was sick, named Lazarus, of Bethany, the town of Mary and her sister Martha.

Mary might have been a little more attentive to Jesus’ teaching than Martha, based on Luke 10:38-42, which states that Martha “was cumbered about much serving” and asked Jesus to bid Mary to help her. Jesus replied, “Martha, thou art careful and troubled about many things: But one thing is needful: and Mary hath chosen that good part, which shall not be taken away from her.” Jesus loved both sisters (John 11:5) but Mary probably a tiny bit more. Mary and Martha were definitely consecrated at this time. We do not know if Lazarus was consecrated. However, Jesus loved all three.

In verse 5, John mentioned Martha first. Here he mentioned Mary first. Apparently, he wanted to give equal importance to both, although probably in Jesus’ sight, there was a slight preference for Mary, one reason being her anointing of his feet (verse 2). Mary had stored up this precious ointment and perhaps even with this motive in mind, which would make her level of affection for the Master very high. Martha was apparently the older sister (Luke 10:38).

Bethany, which is within walking distance of Jerusalem, is on the side of the Mount of Olives. Bethphage and Bethany adjoin each other.

John 11:2 (It was that Mary which anointed the Lord with ointment, and wiped his feet with her hair, whose brother Lazarus was sick.)

Mary anointed Jesus with ointment and then wiped his feet with her hair. There were three anointings in all: two of Jesus’ feet and one of his head. All were separate and distinct occurrences. The two foot anointings were quite widely separated in time, but the head anointing occurred within a couple days of one foot anointing.

This anointing probably took place in Bethany. John was identifying Mary in advance, for she later did the anointing (John 12:3). John wrote his Gospel many years afterward, and the parentheses help us to see that John was only recording an identification point here. Not only will Mary be remembered for doing the anointing of Jesus’ feet, but also the one who anointed Jesus’ head will be remembered (Mark 14:3). Although the latter is an unknown person at present, her identity will be revealed in the future.

John 11:3 Therefore his sisters sent unto him, saying, Lord, behold, he whom thou lovest is sick.

John 11:4 When Jesus heard that, he said, This sickness is not unto death, but for the glory of God, that the Son of God might be glorified thereby.

Jesus’ comment is interesting because Lazarus was only sick at this time, not dead. However, Jesus realized that Lazarus would die and that his death would be a providence of God so that glory might redound unto both the Father and himself. And there is another aspect as well.

Jesus knew that Lazarus’ death would not be permanent because he would be instrumental in Lazarus’ resuscitation. This is another illustration of Jesus’ far-seeing ability.

Just how Jesus had that far-seeing ability is not revealed. We do not know if he was audibly instructed in the inner ear or whether he “sensed” occurrences. At any rate, nothing accidental happened to him. When something untoward took place, he knew there was a meaning. Although Jesus knew such things privately, by his making a statement aloud (such as here), his disciples were informed and realized that he was not caught off-guard.

John was very observing. He noted events, actions, words, etc., that others overlooked. For instance, the other Gospels do not mention this incident or about Nicodemus or the Samaritan woman at the well. Each of these incidents had to do with individuals.

John 11:5 Now Jesus loved Martha, and her sister, and Lazarus.

Q: Verse 3 uses phileo love; verse 5 has agape love. Is there a reason?

A: Jesus loved Lazarus. There are some people we really like personality-wise, and there are others we respect on a higher level who do not have the personality. It is proper to have such respect not based on preference. Jesus really did phileo love Lazarus for reasons not enumerated here.

John 11:6 When he had heard therefore that he was sick, he abode two days still in the same place where he was.

John 11:7 Then after that saith he to his disciples, Let us go into Judaea again.

Lazarus had a mortal illness, but Jesus stayed where he was. In other words, hearing about the sickness of Lazarus, whom he loved, Jesus remained where he was for two more days. This fact caught John’s attention. None of the others had such fine powers of observation to notice little things that are really significant.

Therefore, hearing about Lazarus’ illness, Jesus took his sweet time to respond. And he knew the illness was serious; otherwise, the messenger would not have been sent all the way up to Salim and Aenon at the southern end of the Sea of Galilee where the Jordan River resumed. According to the Talmud, Nazareth was a three-day journey from Jerusalem. Although Jesus was not that far north, he was still about a three-day journey away. After the time delay, Jesus said, “Let us go into Judaea again.” How did his disciples respond?

John 11:8 His disciples say unto him, Master, the Jews of late sought to stone thee; and goest thou thither again?

We should keep in mind that this incident occurred only about four months before Jesus’ crucifixion. His disciples replied in effect, “You just came from Judea in order to avoid it. Why are you now going back into the fire?” The disciples apparently expected Jesus to heal Lazarus “long distance” as he had healed others on occasion. Then he would not have to return. Evidently, the disciples, except for John, did not realize many fine points of the situation. They must have been engrossed in their own thinking.

John 11:9 Jesus answered, Are there not twelve hours in the day? If any man walk in the day, he stumbleth not, because he seeth the light of this world.

John 11:10 But if a man walk in the night, he stumbleth, because there is no light in him.

These generally overlooked words preceded the plain statement “Lazarus is dead” (verse 14). What is their import?

In other chapters of John, the same theme was mentioned. For example, in John 12:35,36, Jesus said, “Yet a little while is the light with you. Walk while ye have the light, lest darkness come upon you: for he that walketh in darkness knoweth not whither he goeth. While ye have light, believe in the light, that ye may be the children of light.” Also, in John 9:4,5, Jesus stated, “I must work the works of him that sent me, while it is day: the night cometh, when no man can work. As long as I am in the world, I am the light of the world.”

When the news of Lazarus’ illness came, Jesus must have been doing a certain work in a certain area. Whatever the hour of day this was, he did not respond immediately for several reasons. One reason was that he had the personal right to do things in his own way and time, for he was the Lord! (Remember that when the disciples said, “Your mother and brothers are without and would like to speak with you,” Jesus did not stop what he was doing. As the Lord, he could continue and allow the other matter to wait.) Whatever the time of day here, Jesus had determined he would work right where he was for the remainder of that day, while it was yet daylight. In addition to this literal reason, there was a symbolic application as well. Also, Jesus could walk and travel at night, particularly in the valley area and route where he was. He had in mind to finish the work he was doing for that day.

Another reason Jesus did not respond immediately is that he is the light of the world. During his ministry, it was primarily during the daylight hours that the people heard him. At night, Jesus (and others) had other responsibilities. At night, therefore, Jesus was not the “light.” Therefore, Jesus was saying that those who wanted to hear his instruction should capitalize on it during the day lest they lose their opportunity—perhaps forever.

Two days later, at the end of the day, Jesus started his journey back to Judea—slowly. Why did he go slowly; that is, why did he proceed at his usual pace instead of hurrying? For one thing, on each day of the return trip, he stopped to preach. The trip was a relatively leisurely three-day journey, but Jesus took four days to get to the tomb. Incidentally, Lazarus was not put into the tomb immediately. First, his body had to be anointed and wrapped; then he was entombed by sunset of the same day. Thus Lazarus was in the tomb from sunset through the night and then for four days before Jesus arrived.

Apparently, Jesus decided to return to Judea when Lazarus died. Thus Jesus’ initial delay, which John observed, was very significant. The other disciples were probably preoccupied with other matters, and hence they missed this observation. Jesus’ delay was the same principle as “Let the dead bury their dead” (Matt. 8:22). Our minds should be on the more important matters. There are two ways of viewing Jesus’ statement in verses 9 and 10, namely, from his standpoint and from the apostles’ standpoint. All of them had responsibilities, and there are practical lessons either way. Jesus was saying that he would not waste his time by traveling during the daylight hours. He used the daytime to minister to others as he made his way to Judea. And the disciples should have realized the importance of, and capitalized on, his preaching—on all the fragments of opportunity.

At night, when Jesus did not speak, the public was in darkness. Those who wanted to hear him had to wait until daylight. (The apostles were an exception.) Not only would Jesus not minister to the people at night, but the hearers were dependent upon him for light (instruction). Likewise, we are ever dependent upon Jesus for instruction. The only light in us is supplied light.

We are in daily need of instruction and refreshment from the Lord and not from or of ourselves.

Many get only smatterings of information and feel that is all they need. Being self-satisfied, they are not hungry for more information. Hence they make no further progress, yet they may think they are very, very advanced. We need daily instruction. The Master supplies the light. Therefore, the people back there should have paid attention to Jesus when he spoke during the daylight hours.

John 11:11 These things said he: and after that he saith unto them, Our friend Lazarus sleepeth; but I go, that I may awake him out of sleep.

John 11:12 Then said his disciples, Lord, if he sleep, he shall do well.

John 11:13 Howbeit Jesus spake of his death: but they thought that he had spoken of taking of rest in sleep.

John 11:14 Then said Jesus unto them plainly, Lazarus is dead.

John 11:15 And I am glad for your sakes that I was not there, to the intent ye may believe; nevertheless let us go unto him.

Aren’t these verses interesting? After Jesus said plainly, “Lazarus is dead,” his next reply seemed to be opposite to the emotions of the disciples. They would think (like Martha and Mary) that if Jesus had been there, Lazarus would not have died. But Jesus said, “I am glad … that I was not there.”

Jesus was about to perform one of the most outstanding miracles of his ministry. Had he been present and healed Lazarus, the grandeur of this awakening would have been lost. Jesus had resuscitated others (Jairus’s daughter, the son of the widow of Nain, etc.), but these individuals had just died. None had started to decay. Hence many might have concluded that they were not really dead. Jesus was glad because he saw the potential of this miracle—and the healthy scoring in the apostles’ hearts and minds of the power inherent in him on their behalf.

Jesus was glad he was not there “to the intent ye may believe.” Didn’t his disciples believe before? Yes, they did believe, but perhaps only to the level of his being a prophet. The full recognition of his being the Messiah—that is, in the fullest sense, in a very realistic way—would raise their faith a notch higher. It was like Martha’s saying, “I know that he [Lazarus] shall rise again in the resurrection at the last day” (verse 24). Although she believed this and all the things Jesus had taught, she needed to see the full power he possessed. The power of the future is one thing, but Jesus had tremendous power and capabilities even in the present, that is, during his First Advent. For the disciples not to take advantage of the present, before his absence, would have deprived them of a great joy and increase in faith.

In the 12 hours of “day,” the disciples could “see” because Jesus was present instructing them. But when the “night” would come, when Jesus would be absent from them, the situation would be different. Hence “day” is significant. The Christian should take advantage of imbibing the truth when the opportunity is afforded. We should study and analyze the truth and note God’s providences in our lives and circumstances. The quicker we are aware of and think on these circumstances, the better it is for us.

“Then said his disciples, Lord, if he sleep, he shall do well.“ We can picture ourselves saying the same thing the apostles did. If Lazarus was sleeping, that seemed favorable.

Since the raising of Lazarus is a sample of Kingdom work, the two-day delay here could picture the period of time from the First Advent to the Second Advent, when the resurrection work will begin. This is tied in with John 5:25,28,29, which states that all in their graves will hear the voice of the Son of man and come forth. Jesus gave a practical illustration of this when he called Lazarus to “come forth.” All in their graves shall hear “the voice of the Son of God,” and Lazarus actually heard Jesus’ voice calling him forth. Thus there are symbolic overtones both timewise and incident-wise.

The holy angels receive instruction as they see God’s plan unfolding. As the Holy Spirit has enlightened the disciples down through the Gospel Age, the holy angels have been informed simultaneously. It is advantageous for the holy angels to see these things gradually unfold. Each consecrated Christian has several holy angels assigned to him with one guardian angel particularly charged with the responsibility to make sure there is coverage 24 hours a day.

While one angel goes to the throne of grace to get certain instructions for a peculiar circumstance, the Christian is not left unguarded.

“Are they [the holy angels] not all ministering spirits, sent forth to minister for them who shall be heirs of salvation?” (Heb. 1:14). The holy angels have been dispensed as “ministering spirits” all down the age. They receive information as we do by auditing the meetings and studies. They hear our discussions. Since they have been “going to meetings” throughout the age, they have the advantage of the cumulative knowledge of 2,000 years of instruction. They are assigned and reassigned to Christians as individuals consecrate and die. What the holy angels hear and see is very educational.

It is a humbling experience for the holy angels, who are far more powerful than we are, to see the power of ALMIGHTY GOD work through little human creatures and thus provide a source of instruction for them, the angels. How happy the holy angels would be to see one they personally guarded make his or her calling and election sure!

The Lazarus account is often used at funeral discourses to illustrate that death is a “sleep” from which there will be an awakening. Death is an unconscious sleep.

John 11:16 Then said Thomas, which is called Didymus, unto his fellowdisciples, Let us also go, that we may die with him.

Jesus had just said, “Nevertheless let us go unto him [Lazarus]” (verse 15). And the disciples had reminded Jesus that the Jews sought to stone him (verse 8). Now Thomas said, “Let us also go [to Jerusalem], that we may die with him.” Verse 16 gives us a clue as to why Jesus subsequently exercised great forbearance with Thomas.

John is the same apostle who later told how Thomas doubted that Jesus had been resurrected and said he would believe only if he saw the wounds. Hence John gave a balanced appraisal of Thomas’s character. Here John showed the apostle’s great courage, and later he recorded Jesus’ rebuke: “More blessed are those who believe without seeing than those who believe by seeing” (John 20:29 paraphrase). Nevertheless, Thomas is one of the twelve apostles, greatly blessed.

John 11:17 Then when Jesus came, he found that he had lain in the grave four days already.

Verse 17 tells us several things. For one thing, putrefaction had set in by this time. In verse 14, Jesus said, “Lazarus is dead.” Only then did Jesus decide to return to Bethany. Since Lazarus had been dead for four days when Jesus arrived, the journey took four days. With the journey from Galilee to Bethany normally requiring only three days, the obvious conclusion is that Jesus did not hurry back. He could foresee that when he would awaken Lazarus, the resuscitation would have a great impact on the nation and that God and he would be glorified thereby (verse 4).

John 11:18 Now Bethany was nigh unto Jerusalem, about fifteen furlongs off:

John 11:19 And many of the Jews came to Martha and Mary, to comfort them concerning their brother.

“Fifteen furlongs” was a distance of about two miles. The fact that “many” Jews came indicates this family was quite well known and prominent to attract a large number of comforters.

John 11:20 Then Martha, as soon as she heard that Jesus was coming, went and met him: but Mary sat still in the house.

Martha was apparently a little more anxious, whereas Mary waited patiently. Martha’s reaction is a clue as to the difference in the temperaments of the two sisters. Elsewhere we see that Martha was involved in the preparation and serving of temporal provisions. She was hospitable and a doer. Martha and Mary both sat at Jesus’ feet, but Mary was more pensive and thoughtful along other lines.

John 11:21 Then said Martha unto Jesus, Lord, if thou hadst been here, my brother had not died.

John 11:22 But I know, that even now, whatsoever thou wilt ask of God, God will give it thee.

Martha said (paraphrase), “If you had been here, you would have seen that Lazarus was sick and dying, and you would have healed him.” Certainly Martha was aware that Jesus had raised some others from death, but that was after a recent death (for example, the son of the widow from Nain and Jairus’s daughter). Lazarus was different, for he had been dead for four days and was decaying. Therefore, Martha must have spoken the remaining words (“But I know, that even now, whatsoever thou wilt ask of God, God will give it thee”) more or less without thinking. Otherwise, the subsequent conversation would be irrelevant (verses 23-27).

Martha was somewhat perturbed that Jesus had not responded faster, since he was given advance notice while Lazarus was sick, that is, before he died. However, her words in verse 22 were uttered without thinking of a resurrection. Sometimes people say things that are deeper than intended, as indicated by Jesus’ statement when he quoted from the Eighth Psalm: “Out of the mouth of babes and sucklings thou hast perfected praise” (Matt. 21:16). Sometimes the Lord’s people with relatively little knowledge unwittingly make very profound statements.

Incidentally, if Jesus were God, why would Martha want Jesus to ask God to give her what she wanted? To do so would not make sense. The fact that such an enormous deception as the Trinity has pervaded the minds of great thinkers shows that Satan has blinded the minds of men lest they see the relationship of Jesus and God clearly. Seeing the truth on this subject is no credit to us, for it is the power of the Holy Spirit that enlightens us. The understanding is a gift, not our own wisdom. A cloud caused by the Adversary obscures this subject. No matter how brilliant one is, if he looks through cloudy glass, he will not see the clear picture, even if the print is clear. How we are indoctrinated can influence us. It is very hard to view a subject, doctrine, or principle in a truly dispassionate sense. On most subjects, we are already prejudiced, sometimes for the good and sometimes not.

John 11:23 Jesus saith unto her, Thy brother shall rise again.

Jesus’ use of the future tense (“shall rise”) proves that in verse 22, Martha did not think he would raise Lazarus back there, at that time.

John 11:24 Martha saith unto him, I know that he shall rise again in the resurrection at the last day.

Martha was thinking, “Oh yes, I know that my brother will rise again, but that time is future, a long way off.” Thus Martha was not really thinking along the lines that her words in verse 22 seem to indicate.

John 11:25 Jesus said unto her, I am the resurrection, and the life: he that believeth in me, though he were dead, yet shall he live:

John 11:26 And whosoever liveth and believeth in me shall never die. Believest thou this?

“I am the resurrection, and the life”—what profound words! Jesus used present tense here, even though he had not yet proved faithful to the death on the Cross. Thus he was saying, “I am the channel through which the resurrection and the life will take place.” He was appointed of the Father to come down here and do certain things. When these were accomplished, he would be given the privilege of raising the dead in the next age. He will be the age-lasting Father in the Kingdom, and this role was predicated on his complying with his Father’s wishes. At this point in time, Jesus had already come down to earth, and he had now almost completed his ministry of 3 1/2 years. Now he said, “I am the resurrection, and the life”; that is, “I am the means whereby others may obtain the resurrected life.”

The Apostle Paul reasoned both ways: from the standpoint of mathematical exactness and also from a prophetic perspective. For example, those who have consecrated and undergone baptism, which evidences the step already taken, have, as it were, already risen and are walking as the children of the light, as having already been resurrected. But this reasoning is from a prospective or anticipatory sense. In other words, in view of the things that will later transpire, and even in the present life, we can get the benefits in the form of a partial payment of the future power of a resurrected life.

What about “resurrection” versus “life”? “Resurrection” is the Greek anastasis, but there are different ways to view this word. Sometimes a process of ascending order is meant, sometimes the process is in descending order, and sometimes the reference is broad with regard to things that will happen and thus is not necessarily sequential in either ascending or descending order. “Resurrection” and “life” are very broad terms. The Apostle John frequently talked about “life” in both his epistles and his Gospel.

The prize of the high calling is the highest form of life, and there are subordinate gradations of life, both spiritual and earthly. But we should keep in mind here that Jesus was talking in connection with Lazarus, who was lying dead in the tomb. Everything was on Jesus’ shoulders—his prosperity or lack of prosperity was directly proportional to that which would affect others. Therefore, his being “the resurrection, and the life” was contingent upon his own obedience. Right along Jesus had been blessed of the Father, however, so those who were associated with Jesus were also being blessed in proportion to their closeness to him.

In verse 25, the use of “resurrection” seems to be in the broad sense of the word. Earlier (in verse 4) Jesus said that Lazarus’ sickness had happened for the glory of God—”that the Son of God might be glorified thereby”—for Lazarus’ sickness was “not unto death.” The disciples appreciated the Master for all that he did, but after he raised Lazarus from the dead, all who witnessed the miracle did not merely believe he was the Messiah but were delirious with joy over his power. The fact that Lazarus was already deteriorating and stinking when he was raised from the tomb glorified Jesus even more. For Lazarus to come forth after four days was astounding! If someone had only just died and then was awakened, it would not be as  impressive. We might think, “Maybe the party was not truly dead.” But after a person was dead for four days and wrapped in grave clothes, the matter would be incontrovertible.

Jesus saw that this experience would do several things. For one thing, it would enhance his reputation in the eyes of the nation. The nation would become very excited over the event, and hence the wheels of his execution would be hastened. The event would glorify him among those who wanted to have faith in him, and it would make others want to put him to death.

Q: Did Martha know about “the resurrection at the last day” through her training as a Jew based on Abraham’s hope?

A: Yes, probably. In addition, she knew the identity of Messiah. She realized that Jesus was the channel through which the resurrection would occur but thought of it as taking place in the future, at the last day. Jesus replied, “I am the resurrection and the life now.” A blessing would accrue from being so closely associated with Jesus right then and there at his First Advent. The lesson is not to overlook the present in view of the farsightedness of the future. If we do, we will lose valuable opportunities. We will overlook the responsibilities, encouragements, and helps of the present, which Jesus was focusing on. Not only was he the resurrection and the life of the future, but even back there blessings would accrue to those who carefully and attentively hearkened unto every word he might utter.

“He that believeth in me, though he were dead, yet shall he live.” This is what happened with Lazarus. Though he was dead and in the tomb, yet he would live.

Q: Is verse 26 a reference to Second Death: “And whosoever liveth and believeth in me shall never die”?

A: If these verses refer to mankind, it could mean that some will never go into Adamic death because they will be living at the time the Kingdom is established. If these verses refer to the Church, then the tense should be changed: “He that believeth in me, though he may die, yet shall he live.” However, the context is about Lazarus in the tomb. At the time of his death, it does not seem that he had yet consecrated and become a disciple. He was friendly and hospitable to Jesus, and he had a pleasing character, which added to his popularity. In fact, it was Lazarus who was well known rather than Mary and Martha (we will see why later).

Therefore, if Jesus uttered these words with Lazarus especially in mind, the thrust would be a little different, and this was probably the case.

In the interlinear Greek in the Diaglott, verse 26 is a little puzzling, for it has a double negative: “All the living and believing into me, not not may die into the age.” And the question would be, Which age? The Greek seems to support the thought about those who live on into the Kingdom and do not die in the Time of Trouble. If those individuals then listen to and obey Messiah, believing into him, they will not go into Second Death at the end of the Millennium but will be as the angels. Pinpointing which “age” would be the determining factor, and we cannot be absolutely sure. Hence either of the two thoughts could be correct.

Jesus’ statements in verses 25 and 26 were made with Lazarus especially in mind, and he was in the tomb at this point. Jesus was talking about his capability with Lazarus. The power that Jesus will exercise in the future would be representatively used in Lazarus now because Lazarus was a picture of the future resurrection. Jesus said earlier that Lazarus’ death had happened in order that the role of the Son of man would be greatly enhanced through the resuscitation. In John 5:28,29, Jesus stated that all in their graves would hear the voice of the Son of man and come forth. This prophecy ties in with the eleventh chapter of John, the Lazarus account, where Jesus cried with a loud voice, “Lazarus, come forth.” In other words, the raising of Lazarus was a minisample of what will take place in the Kingdom on a large scale.

Lazarus had been dead a long time, and Martha was thinking, “Oh, yes, in the future, Lazarus will be raised.” But even then, at his First Advent, Jesus was authorized to do certain things. Those who come forth in the Kingdom will likewise have a resuscitated life. It will be an awakening—just like Lazarus—but instead of four days, it can be 2,000 or 6,000 years before the resuscitation takes place. Not until after the Little Season at the end of the Millennium will one enter the ages of ages with life and never die. Prior to that time, many things can happen.

For example, a person may believe at one time and not at another. Some depart from the narrow way who once believed, and some will likewise fail in the Kingdom. If we remain in the love of God, if we keep ourselves in the love of God, then salvation will be effected.

Q: Wouldn’t verses 25 and 26 have been helpful when repeated to Lazarus following his resuscitation? He might have wondered about his destination after his raising, and these words would have helped. He was being given another opportunity to live. It was as if Jesus were saying, “Though you were dead, you now have an opportunity to live and never die the Second Death.”

A: Yes, we have thought along the line of Lazarus’ becoming a disciple wholeheartedly after this experience. His resuscitation would have been a turning point in his life.

And there is another point. When Jesus gave the Parable of the Rich Man and Lazarus, it was a tie-in with the Lazarus of John 11, the Lazarus who was literally raised from death. When Lazarus’ resuscitation was noised about, many Jews went to his house. The news spread throughout Israel that Jesus, with his voice, had raised Lazarus. In the parable, Lazarus was the beggar, the poor man in some respects, who died, but he later ended up in Abraham’s bosom.

In contrast, when the rich man died, there was a great gulf. Several lessons can be drawn from the parable, and certainly the pragmatic lesson in regard to Lazarus himself should not be overlooked. Lazarus would have identified with the parable, saying, “That is my name. I was raised from the tomb.” Others would hear of Lazarus’ awakening and Jesus’ saying, “Though one were raised from the dead, the nation still would not believe” (Luke 16:30,31 paraphrase). And that is exactly what happened. In fact, the nation crucified Jesus after that great miracle.

(Of course the parable is also designed to have an application of Lazarus representing the Gentiles, but the practical value of literally applying the parable to Lazarus back there should not be overlooked.)

The Parable of the Rich Man and Lazarus was given prior to the resuscitation, as though Jesus’ foreknowledge told him Lazarus was designed to be an illustration. No wonder Jesus said, “This happened for the glory of God and to glorify me”; that is, Jesus knew the time would come in his ministry that Lazarus would die and he would awaken him, so he gave the parable in advance. Lazarus was “poor” at that time in that he did not recognize the true value of Christ, the true value of really being a disciple. It was like the rich nobleman who turned away sorrowing, not realizing he had a golden opportunity if he would sell all he had and follow Jesus. Had he done this, he ultimately would have been far wealthier than anything he could amass here on earth. However, unlike the rich man, Lazarus was probably shaken out of his lethargy and fully consecrated his life. He realized there was a step beyond friendship. We can be very close to someone and not truly realize how valuable he or she is. We can be the closest friend and still not see the party from the true perspective. Lazarus’ resuscitation would have been a real shocker to him—and of great benefit.

John 11:27 She saith unto him, Yea, Lord: I believe that thou art the Christ, the Son of God, which should come into the world.

John 11:28 And when she had so said, she went her way, and called Mary her sister secretly, saying, The Master is come, and calleth for thee.

John 11:29 As soon as she heard that, she arose quickly, and came unto him.

Now Mary, who had previously sat in the house, heard that Jesus was asking particularly for her. She quickly went to him, being alert to do his will. Alertness is a good quality. It is interesting that Martha went to Mary on the side and secretly told her.

Verse 27 shows that Martha did not fully comprehend Jesus’ words in verses 25 and 26. She said, “I believe you are the Messiah, the Sent One, the Son of God,” but that is as much as she was able to say.

The name Lazarus means “without help”; that is, he was helpless without God’s power. Thus it is apparent that even the naming of Lazarus was overruled.

John 11:30 Now Jesus was not yet come into the town, but was in that place where Martha met him.

In other words, Jesus remained at the spot where Martha had met him. Jesus had been in transit when Martha came to him and had a conversation with him. After she left, instead of continuing on, Jesus stayed there. Meanwhile, Martha ran back to Mary and said secretly, “The Master is here and calls for you.” Now Mary was coming to Jesus at that same place. Jesus used wisdom by talking with Mary and Martha first, and thus dispensing with preliminary conversation before going directly to Lazarus’ tomb.

John 11:31 The Jews then which were with her in the house, and comforted her, when they saw Mary, that she rose up hastily and went out, followed her, saying, She goeth unto the grave to weep there.

When the Jews saw Mary leave, they followed her. Obviously, the Jews did not hear what Martha had said to her secretly. Thus they assumed she was hurrying to the tomb, and they wanted to accompany her out of sympathy. “The Jews” were probably a mixed group, some being believers and some not. At any rate, they were friends and neighbors who were familiar with the family. Lazarus was a well-known personality, so when news of his death got out, it attracted quite a bit of attention.

John 11:32 Then when Mary was come where Jesus was, and saw him, she fell down at his feet, saying unto him, Lord, if thou hadst been here, my brother had not died.

Mary’s words here were also Martha’s exact words earlier (verse 21), so obviously, they had discussed this matter together prior to Jesus’ coming. Their remarks could be considered a gentle rebuke, especially since Jesus had deliberately delayed his return.

John 11:33 When Jesus therefore saw her weeping, and the Jews also weeping which came with her, he groaned in the spirit, and was troubled,

John 11:34 And said, Where have ye laid him? They said unto him, Lord, come and see.

Jesus saw Mary weeping, and there was a close rapport between them, since Mary was accustomed to sitting at his feet to learn of him. Mary’s weeping began to stir him emotionally.

Then he saw the Jews weeping too, suggesting there was sincerity in the weeping. Seeing both Mary and the Jews weeping built up a crescendo in Jesus that resulted in his weeping also (verse 35). Jesus was very emotionally stirred as he asked where Lazarus’ body was.

Some consider John’s Gospel to be anti-Semitic because of the frequent use of the term “the Jews,” but “the Jews” were simply the residents in the area of Judea and Jerusalem. In other words, residents in that area were called “Jews” as opposed to, for instance, “Galileans,” who resided around Galilee.

John 11:35 Jesus wept.

Of course Jesus knew not only that Lazarus will be resurrected in the Kingdom but that shortly he would be resuscitated. Therefore, Jesus was weeping for the pain and loss that the family felt. Although we sorrow not as others, we do sorrow when death occurs—and for similar reasons (1 Thess. 4:13).

Notice the intimacy of expression in this account. It is as if we are living the experience. By being transported back in time to 2,000 years earlier, we are given a touching revealment or insight into the experience. Jesus really wept—not just one sob but a period of weeping as Mary and the Jews walked toward the tomb.

Jesus wept in spite of the fact that he knew the raising of Lazarus would bring great joy; that is, he entered into the emotions of the experience as it occurred. Apparently, this characteristic was in Jesus’ makeup as he viewed the race going down into degradation, sorrow, and death. The Father could not have chosen any being better suited to be man’s ransom. Jesus had a sympathetic makeup. Thus when the Father proffered the opportunity to Jesus to come to earth and die on man’s behalf, He knew that Jesus would accept with joy. In fact, Jesus was only too happy to come down here. He did not weigh all the factors but considered them later as he met them. Moreover, Jesus wept, as it were, before he came down here, for the plight of the human family emotionally stirred him. He was not coldly detached like a surgeon.

John 11:36 Then said the Jews, Behold how he loved him!

The clause “Behold how he loved him!” shows that Jesus’ weeping was an emotional outburst, not restrained weeping.

John 11:37 And some of them said, Could not this man, which opened the eyes of the blind, have caused that even this man should not have died?

This question was much like the comments of Mary and Martha earlier. Now others were taking up the refrain. Because Jesus himself was weeping, the others thought he could not do anything to prevent Lazarus’ death; that is, they misconstrued the motivation behind his weeping.

Jesus had raised Jairus’s daughter from death, but she had just died, which is quite different from being in the tomb for four days. Jesus simply went to the couch and awakened her. The widow’s son was also resuscitated when Jesus put his hand on the bier and said, “Arise.” But since the burial took place the same day the death had occurred, it was as if the body was still warm. Thus, even though resuscitation had previously been performed, the case of Lazarus, who had been dead for four days, seemed hopeless. Therefore, as Jesus walked, weeping, to Lazarus’ tomb, the people were unaware of the real power he had.

John 11:38 Jesus therefore again groaning in himself cometh to the grave. It was a cave, and a stone lay upon it.

This second groaning, a further agitation, was due to the people’s misunderstanding of his first groaning.

John 11:39 Jesus said, Take ye away the stone. Martha, the sister of him that was dead, saith unto him, Lord, by this time he stinketh: for he hath been dead four days.

Jesus, who was able to perform so many miracles, could easily have moved the stone away, but his asking others to do it shows that we should do for ourselves what we can. Jesus steps in where situations are beyond man’s capability. For example, when Peter was shackled to two men next to him, the shackles miraculously dropped off. Then the angel instructed Peter to put on his shoes, walk, and follow him (Acts 12:1-12). When they got to the barred gate, it miraculously opened. Thus we are expected to do certain things, and other things we are not expected to do. The Lord will help us with the latter.

Lazarus’ tomb was a cave. The cave had a vertical mouth opening, and the stone would have lain across the opening. When Jesus said, “Take away the stone,” the onlookers would have responded, “For what reason? Who wants to enter the tomb with the stench of decay?” To enter several months later would have been all right, for then there would have been no odor. It is very hard to get the smell of death out of the lungs.

John 11:40 Jesus saith unto her, Said I not unto thee, that, if thou wouldest believe, thou shouldest see the glory of God?

Earlier Martha had gently chided Jesus; now he gently chided her. Martha and the others would subsequently have to admit Jesus told her that if she believed, she would see “the glory of God.” Notice that Martha did not reply—she was silenced. Now came a tense moment.

What would Jesus do? Mystery was attached to the situation.

John 11:41 Then they took away the stone from the place where the dead was laid. And Jesus lifted up his eyes, and said, Father, I thank thee that thou hast heard me.

John 11:42 And I knew that thou hearest me always: but because of the people which stand by I said it, that they may believe that thou hast sent me.

Present tense should be used in Jesus’ prayer in verse 42 as follows: “And I know that thou hearest me always: but because of the people which stand by I say it.” Here is a strong rebuttal against the Trinity, for why would Jesus have to thank and talk to the Father if he and the Father were one? Jesus knew that God heard him, God answered his prayers, God supplied the power for the miracles, etc., but he prayed or spoke audibly for the benefit of others so that they would realize his close relationship to the Father. Even if Jesus spoke about his own importance, he always gave the Father the highest credit and showed the Father to be the source of his power. In verse 25, Jesus said, “I am the resurrection, and the life.” However, had he performed the miracle of raising Lazarus without first praying to the Father, the Father’s primacy would not have been appreciated.

Invariably, the proof texts of Trinitarians can be discounted by reading a verse or two before or after, or by reading the entire context. The Father’s supremacy is shown here. Jesus’ words were proper. In fact, it would have been improper for Jesus not to have thus honored the Father.

John 11:43 And when he thus had spoken, he cried with a loud voice, Lazarus, come forth.

Jesus’ “loud voice” suggests authority, a command, as well as the physical setup of Lazarus’ tomb. To see the tomb in Bethany, one must walk up an incline. On the left is the doorway to the tomb. The individual enters a short way into a vestibule and then goes down a circular stairwell. The stairs go down more or less a couple of flights to a short floor level that leads to the tomb room in which Lazarus’ body was laid.

From Lazarus’ perspective, imagine being down there dead, clothed in grave wrappings (head and body separately wrapped) and hearing Jesus’ voice. Jesus was up above, a fair distance away, separated by a torturous stairway. Jesus yelled, “LAZARUS, COME FORTH!” in a loud voice. He had to shout in order for Lazarus to hear way down below in the tomb chamber. The spectators, also realizing the depth of the body in the tomb chamber, would have reasoned, “Does Jesus think Lazarus will hear him? A man dead for four days cannot hear.” It would have taken time for Lazarus to come up the stairs to the entrance of the cave, especially with  grave wrappings on him. And with the head napkin covering his eyes, he would have to feel his way up the stairs in the dark. Meanwhile, the spectators were waiting, wondering if Lazarus would respond, yet thinking such a thing would be impossible. After 15, 20, 30 seconds (a long time when people are waiting), Lazarus appeared at the tomb entrance, still wrapped in the grave clothes. The first reaction of the spectators was fear and the thought “What is this? I cannot believe my eyes!”

In their shock, the spectators forgot certain other things; for example, Lazarus would have to be assisted in removing the grave wrappings. The bandage was taken off his head so that he could breathe more properly. Then the wrappings were removed from his body. Imagine! The shock and fear now became GREAT JOY! Those present probably danced and ran down the streets shouting, “A miracle has been performed! A miracle has been performed!” They would have run hither and yon yelling to neighbors, friends, families, and strangers, “Lazarus is alive!” “We saw the miracle! He is alive!” That miracle would have created a real uproar in the tiny town of Bethany, and there were plenty of eyewitnesses to testify. This most outstanding miracle was the climax of Jesus’ ministry as far as the public was concerned.

The Apostle John chose the wording very carefully back in John 5:28,29, where Jesus said the hour would come when all in their graves would hear the voice of the Son of man and come forth. John repeated the wording here with the sample miracle of such a “coming forth.” In fact, this miracle with Lazarus was the basis for John’s earlier observation in the fifth chapter. A deeper significance is now seen in Jesus’ statement “I am the resurrection, and the life”—a significance other than the far-off fulfillment. If Jesus had the power to raise Lazarus, then in other ways, he is a living Savior who is able to do and save to the uttermost those who come to him (Heb. 7:25).

The manner of Lazarus’ burial helps us to understand about Jesus’ burial. Jesus was buried according to the custom (“as the manner of the Jews is to bury”—John 19:40). He was not wrapped like a cocoon as in Egypt where both legs are strapped together and immobilized. The Hebrew style was to take the bandage and wrap each leg separately, then the torso, the neck, etc. A separate napkin was wrapped around the face. Although there were probably breaks in the bandage about the body, it was like one continuous bandage composed of a relatively narrow cloth. Thus the arms were free and separate from the body, not immobilized against the body.

When John looked into the tomb and saw the bandages lying, he believed that Jesus had been raised (John 20:5-8). He realized the body had been extracted miraculously without unwrapping because the bandages were intact, just collapsed. Thus the condition of the bandages was a proof of Jesus’ resurrection. John was very astute and alert—almost like an artist who makes sure that no little detail is wanting. John’s perceptiveness is apparent throughout his Gospel.

In ascending the steps, feeling his way in darkness, Lazarus was guided by the voice of Jesus to know the direction. He was attracted to the source of the voice like a magnet. We, likewise, hope to hear the voice of the Master in resurrection when we die: “Well done, thou good and faithful servant; enter into the joys of thy Lord” (Matt. 25:23 paraphrase).

John’s Gospel beautifully complements the other three Gospels. Being more international in appeal, it crosses all racial, religious, and geographic lines and has been very helpful in converting people.

The account does not so state, but probably much virtue went out of Jesus in performing this miracle. That, plus his emotional expenditure, would have exhausted him.

Much of the acclamation for Jesus in his Triumphal Entry into Jerusalem was probably induced by this miracle with Lazarus. Moreover, the idea of a loud voice in connection with resurrection ties in with 1 Thessalonians 4:16, which says that Jesus descends from heaven with the voice of an archangel, and the dead in Christ shall rise first.

John 11:44 And he that was dead came forth, bound hand and foot with graveclothes: and his face was bound about with a napkin. Jesus saith unto them, Loose him, and let him go.

When Lazarus came forth, the witnesses were stunned momentarily into a motionless stupor, until Jesus said, “Loose him, and let him go.” They were in shock, forgetting Lazarus’ need to breathe more freely.

Jesus possessed tremendous composure of mind. Even in his emotional trauma and weeping, he was organized in his thinking. With us, any unusual emotion blinds our eyes and our rationale. “Blind with fury” is a saying. If we are very angry, we cannot reason clearly. That is true of joy as well as of anger or sorrow. Things fail to sink in with us because the experience is overwhelming but not with Jesus. He always maintained the presence of mind of what to do, what to say, and how to say it, and he took in all of the details. For example, in his agony on the Cross, he said to John, “Behold thy mother” (John 19:27).

John 11:45 Then many of the Jews which came to Mary, and had seen the things which Jesus did, believed on him.

John 11:46 But some of them went their ways to the Pharisees, and told them what things Jesus had done.

How incredible that any who beheld such a miracle would tattle to the Pharisees! Although only a minority did this, it is still incredible. Many others believed into Jesus at this point and were converted. However, people are different. The same mixed reactions occurred at the Exodus in regard to miracles that took place and subsequently in the Wilderness of Sinai. Some forgot the miracles the very next day. One can succumb to evil and reap a destiny of destruction if he is not careful to pursue a proper path.

The evil element was self-seeking. In informing the Pharisees, they wanted to add to their own prestige and advantage. Their motive was wrong! Those who have practiced an affinity for sin and evil must willfully incline their hearts toward reformation in order to break the shackles.

They must implore the Lord for help. Just seeing miracles will not necessarily change perverts. If such were the case, then every Jew living would be a part of the Holy Remnant at the end of the age when God performs mighty miracles. The heart condition is important.

Q: Why is this most prominent miracle omitted from the other Gospels?

A: The four Gospels were each written with different motivations. John’s Gospel was especially written for those more inclined to give their hearts to the Lord. It is more universal instead of being directed just to the Jews, just to the Greeks, or just to the Romans.

Before John wrote his Gospel, he structured in his mind how to treat the subject. The other Gospel writers did the same. Otherwise, a writer can get lost in his subject or frame as he pursues it to a destination. Matthew particularly directed his Gospel to the Jews; thus he was concerned with quoting Old Testament prophecies as having their fulfillment in Jesus’ ministry.

His motive was also to show that Jesus can reclaim the sinner regardless of background. Mark wrote to appeal to the Romans. Luke’s Gospel was written from a physician’s standpoint. And John was very observant of details that, at first, might not seem to be related to the incident at hand yet were startlingly relevant. For example, he mentioned that the boat in the storm on Galilee was immediately at shore after Jesus entered it.

Because of his powers of observation, it is good that John recorded the raising of Lazarus. To have piecemeal accounts in two or three Gospels, as with some of the other events, would have detracted from this greatest miracle. Instead, in the one account, we can relive the incident and grasp the startling power. John also wrote of personalized experiences, such as the Samaritan woman, Nicodemus, and Lazarus.

Jesus said that this miracle would be done to the “glory of God” (John 11:40). How appropriate that he lifted his eyes to heaven and said, “Father, I thank thee.” Jesus always gave credit to the Father.

Many cling to the Trinity because “the god of this world hath blinded the minds of them which believe not, lest the light of the glorious gospel of Christ, who is the image of God, should shine unto them” (2 Cor. 4:4). Satan’s power is overwhelming for blinding men. Only if we are providentially led of God is the veil lifted from our eyes to see the truth. If such were not the case, we would be sure and obstinate in our own blindness and thus be the blind teaching and leading the blind (Luke 6:39).

John 11:47 Then gathered the chief priests and the Pharisees a council, and said, What do we? for this man doeth many miracles.

John 11:48 If we let him thus alone, all men will believe on him: and the Romans shall come and take away both our place and nation.

Apparently, the chief priests and Pharisees were aware of Jesus’ doings, for they observed that he did “many miracles.” They were probably keeping track of him. And the raising of Lazarus, a stupendous miracle, took place very close to Jerusalem, about two miles away. Antitype: The counterpart to the Romans is the Communists. The consecrated will give a general worldwide message that will receive relative popularity. Subsequently the powers of Christendom, especially the nominal religious system, will fear that if this message gains too wide a hold, the Communists will take over and Christendom will perish. Like the Romans, Communists are an alien, heathen (godless) power. Today Communism is viewed as a power threatening to take over. Instead of the miracles that Jesus did, the feet members will open  blind eyes with their “popular” message. There will be a miraculous understanding of truth.

(Note: This study of John’s Gospel was done in 1986-1987. Events since the year 2000 indicate the likelihood that Islam and the Muslims will prove to be the antitype of the Romans.)

John 11:49 And one of them, named Caiaphas, being the high priest that same year, said unto them, Ye know nothing at all,

John 11:50 Nor consider that it is expedient for us, that one man should die for the people, and that the whole nation perish not.

John 11:51 And this spake he not of himself: but being high priest that year, he prophesied that Jesus should die for that nation;

John 11:52 And not for that nation only, but that also he should gather together in one the children of God that were scattered abroad.

These were the remarks of Caiaphas. He spoke artificially as he was moved by God’s Spirit because he occupied, ostensibly at least, the office of high priest. (In ancient times, the high priest was looked to for counsel on critical issues.) It is interesting that God used a man with evil motives to utter a prophecy. Precedents for this are found in Balaam and Saul. Balaam was to pronounce a curse over Israel, but it was overruled that he do the opposite. Instead he pronounced a blessing and prophecy not only with regard to the people of Israel but also with regard to a star rising out of Jacob (Num. 24:1-9,15-24). Balaam possessed a wrong spirit and evil counsel, yet the Lord mechanically used him on that occasion. Saul, too, prophesied on one occasion. The people observing this said, “Is Saul also among the prophets?” (1 Sam. 10:12).

Caiaphas said, “Ye know nothing at all.” That was a true statement. God spoke through Caiaphas in a mechanical fashion. In having evil counsel to put Jesus to death, the priests and Pharisees did not realize that their actions would actually fulfill God’s purpose, for Jesus came here to die. Unwittingly, because of their disposition of jealousy, they were really fulfilling God’s plan. When the Holy Spirit said, “Ye know nothing at all,” the words were almost sarcastic. God was saying, “You do not know what you are doing. By putting Jesus to death to silence his testimony, you will do exactly the opposite. His death means salvation, and it will make the disciples even more fervent and zealous when he is raised.” The entire statement of Caiaphas was uttered mechanically under the power of the Holy Spirit: “Ye know nothing at all, Nor consider that it is expedient for us, that one man should die for the people, and that the whole nation perish not.” A quick reading gives the impression that the first part of the remark was Caiaphas’s own personal statement and the second half was uttered under the Spirit, but the entire statement was made mechanically under the Holy Spirit.

Q: Back there were the “children of God that were scattered abroad” literal Jews outside of Israel?

A: Primarily, this term applied to the Jews who lived outside of Israel. The Apostle James addressed his epistle to both the homeland Jews and the Jews elsewhere (James 1:1). And what applied to the Jews back there applies to Christians today. Here in John, the main emphasis was to the lost sheep of the house of Israel, but the term also broadened out to include others.

Jesus went originally to the lost sheep of the house of Israel, but his message was designed to embrace those who did not reside in Israel. They were to be acquainted with the truth, for the disciples took the refrain to others after Pentecost. Many of the Jews from scattered lands were present in Israel for Pentecost, and they were a holy, devout people (Acts 2:5). Peter addressed these zealous ones who had left a foreign land and traveled to Israel to observe the feast.

Thousands were converted by Peter’s one sermon (Acts 2:41).

John 11:53 Then from that day forth they took counsel together for to put him to death.

“From that day forth,” that is, from the time Caiaphas mechanically uttered this prophecy, the priests and Pharisees “took counsel together” to put Jesus to death. The priests and Pharisees had plotted previously, but now, since their chief spokesman had given this advice regarding the expediency of putting Jesus to death lest the Romans come and the nation perish, they heeded the counsel. In a concerted, collective fashion, they began to plot Jesus’ death.

John 11:54 Jesus therefore walked no more openly among the Jews; but went thence unto a country near to the wilderness, into a city called Ephraim, and there continued with his disciples.

The location of the city of Ephraim cannot be proven, but the probable location was southeast of Jerusalem, somewhere in the vicinity where Bishop Pike, an Episcopal minister, lost his bearings and died. The Wilderness of Ephraim is near Jerusalem. En route to Jericho from Jerusalem, one comes to sterile desert on both sides of the road but particularly on the east side, only about six miles south of Jerusalem.

Q: In regard to the antitype, does verse 54 show that following the general public witness, there will be an indication of aroused antipathy, and that for a brief period, the feet members will refrain from speaking and watch for the Lord to set the stage? (With Jesus, the Passover provided the stage setting.) In other words, will there be a short period of prudent silence until it is apparent that NOW is the time to speak out again?

A: Yes, we would think so. In many respects, the feet members will have experiences similar to those of Jesus.

The fact that Jesus “there continued with his disciples” suggests that this was a period of refreshment and enlightenment, a rest period with the disciples. Also, this suggests that the feet members will gather together, knowing what is impending and soon to occur. Some preparation and consolidation will be desired prior to the severe experience. Hence it seems that there will be a period of rest and easement following the relative popularity but before the severe persecution. The brethren will be trying to regroup their resources.

Ephraim means “fruitful”; therefore, the name might suggest a regrouping with consideration being given to the impending doom, as it were, of the true Church. It will be “fruitful” in the sense of a period of refreshment and help. There will be prayer and the seeking of counsel from Jesus and the Lord’s Word as to what to do.

John 11:55 And the Jews’ passover was nigh at hand: and many went out of the country up to Jerusalem before the passover, to purify themselves.

This was the fourth Passover of Jesus’ First Advent, the one just prior to his crucifixion. Verse 55 is saying that Jesus would be crucified a fortnight (about two weeks) later. Some who intended to go to the feast went earlier than would normally be necessary in order to purify themselves. These Jews were having the discussion in verse 56.

John 11:56 Then sought they for Jesus, and spake among themselves, as they stood in the temple, What think ye, that he will not come to the feast?

Those Jews who arrived early wondered if Jesus would come to the Passover feast.

John 11:57 Now both the chief priests and the Pharisees had given a commandment, that, if any man knew where he were, he should show it, that they might take him.

The chief priests and Pharisees had already taken counsel together, and now they were determined to apprehend and kill Jesus. They wanted to seize him the moment he arrived, but certain providential happenings prevented this. For one thing, there were too many people with him. (Jesus had raised Lazarus recently, and his popularity had grown.) The religious leadership did not want the people to realize they were evilly disposed toward Jesus as an individual, but they wanted to know his every movement in order to apprehend him at the most opportune moment. In other words, they wanted to arrest him in advance of the Passover, but they could not.

The chief priests and Pharisees had handpicked sympathizers who acted as informers.

(Similarly, today the nominal Church system has laymen who honor the priesthood yet are not part of it, for example, the Knights of Columbus.) Word got out to these sympathetic individuals to watch Jesus and report his whereabouts.

(1986–1987 Study)

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