Psalm Chapter 45: The Bride of Christ and the Marriage

Dec 9th, 2009 | By | Category: Psalms, Verse by Verse --Studies led by Br. Frank Shallieu (Click on Book name)

Psalm Chapter 45: The Bride of Christ and the Marriage

Psa. 45:0 To the chief Musician upon Shoshannim, for the sons of Korah, Maschil, A Song of loves.

Whenever this ode or instructional hymn is to be sung in a worship service, the superscription instructs the conductor of the choir and the music that the Psalm is to be played “upon Shoshannim,” meaning “upon the lilies” in Hebrew and referring to the predominant musical instruments. The best instruments for “lilies” are the flute and the harp, for the notes are to be softly and clearly enunciated. With each note being in harmony with the theme of the Psalm, the conductor would be saying in effect, “These are my pearl gems.” The word “Maschil,” meaning to teach, instruct, or understand, signifies that the conductor is to keep in mind the mood or the theme of the Psalm as expressed in the words that follow. The music would play continually as the words of the Psalm were sung.

Psalm 45 is called “A Song of loves,” which is like King Solomon’s “The song of songs” (Song 1:1). We would not be surprised if Solomon got the idea for his “Song of Solomon” from this Psalm. The connection seems to be borne out later, as we will see when we go into the theme of the Psalm itself.

Psa. 45:1 My heart is inditing a good matter: I speak of the things which I have made touching the king: my tongue is the pen of a ready writer.

Notice the personal pronouns on the part of the writer of this Psalm, who was King David himself: “my heart,” “I speak,” “I have made,” and “my tongue.” Although the Psalm was planned out, it was composed under the inspiration of God. David could not contain the joy that was in him and the necessity for expression.

In an earlier Psalm, David expressed a somewhat similar emotional outburst: “My heart was hot within me, while I was musing the fire burned: then spake I with my tongue” (Psa. 39:3).

We are also reminded of the Prophet Jeremiah, who said in effect, “I tried to remain silent about what is happening in Israel, but I could not contain my thoughts” (Jer. 20:9). In indignation, he spoke about the disarray and the ungodliness he was witnessing.

For verse 1, the margins of some King James Bibles have, “My heart is bubbling [or ‘boiling’] over.” David had to express his thoughts concerning “a good matter”—something wonderful.

He continued, “I speak of the things which I have made [written] touching the king.” David composed this Psalm when he was in an inspirational mode. Some of us may have had the experience at night while in bed where we have a dream or think on a theme so wonderful and joyous that our sentiment is, “Oh, if only I could tell someone about this!” However, when we wake up in the morning, we find that we have forgotten the dream or that we cannot coherently express the thoughts we had in solitude. Here David had such an experience, and he wrote it down immediately. Perhaps he had forgotten on previous occasions, but this time he recorded the thoughts right away: “My tongue is the pen of a ready writer.” Thus Psalm 45 is the outcome of David’s inspirational feeling. Actually, the Holy Spirit was operating on him.

Since his heart was along the right line, he was the best one to honor with this experience.

David’s tongue was “the pen of a ready writer”; that is, the tip of his tongue was the quill of the pen. What a wonderful introduction to this Psalm! Right away we are interested and want to know what joyous message David could not contain. The rest of the Psalm expresses what was on his heart.

Q: Is “the king” Jesus?

A: Yes, as confirmed by verse 2. David wanted to speak of “things … touching the king [Jesus].”

Psa. 45:2 Thou art fairer than the children of men: grace is poured into thy lips: therefore God hath blessed thee for ever.

The beginning of Psalm 45 pictures Jesus as a King. When David wrote, “Thou [Jesus] art fairer than the children of men: grace is poured into thy lips,” this accolade did not necessarily apply only during Jesus’ earthly ministry, although the examples were numerous. The praetorian guard was sent out to hear Jesus speak at Galilee and apprehend him if he said anything against Pilate or the priesthood, but they returned without him. When questioned by the Pharisees, those of the guard said, “We could not arrest him, for no man has ever spoken like this man. We could not catch him on any word.” An example is his saying, “Render therefore unto Caesar the things which are Caesar’s; and unto God the things that are God’s” (Matt. 22:21). How could the guard apprehend someone who spoke like that? Certainly they could not accuse Jesus of being a traitor when he said yes to both Caesar and God, with each in his respective place. Another example of grace being poured into Jesus’ lips was his Sermon on the  Mount, with the ten “blesseds”: “Blessed are the poor in spirit,” “Blessed are they that mourn,” “Blessed are the meek,” “Blessed are they which do hunger and thirst after righteousness,” “Blessed are the merciful,” etc. (Matt. 5:3-11,16). In addition, he gave beautiful parables.

Jesus is the same being today. He continues to be “fairer than the children of men,” and he still has that grace in his lips. The point is that in this picture here in the beginning of Psalm 45, he is now King, the role he has had throughout the Gospel Age.

Comment: Luke 4:22 reads, “And all bare him [Jesus] witness, and wondered at the gracious words which proceeded out of his mouth. And they said, Is not this Joseph’s son?”

Reply: The people could not believe that such words were coming from a carpenter’s son.

We personally believe that Jesus did not look like an ordinary person. Even when he was in a carpenter’s apron before his earthly ministry began, the Israelites would have seen that he was different in his bearing, his talking, his thinking, and his deeds. When he was in the Temple at age 12, the scribes and Pharisees could not believe that this youngster knew more than they did. Using a question mode, he was instructing the religious leaders. The questions he asked were so deep that they could not believe what they were hearing. Thus Jesus was different.

“Therefore God hath blessed thee for ever.” Jesus was pleasing to his Father. As he was growing up, he “increased in wisdom and stature, and in favour with God and man” (Luke 2:52). People marveled that he was way beyond his years both in understanding and in depth of feeling, character, and deeds.

Psa. 45:3 Gird thy sword upon thy thigh, O most mighty, with thy glory and thy majesty.

Psa. 45:4 And in thy majesty ride prosperously because of truth and meekness and righteousness; and thy right hand shall teach thee terrible things.

Psa. 45:5 Thine arrows are sharp in the heart of the king’s enemies; whereby the people fall under thee.

During the Gospel Age, the people who fall under Christ’s influence, doing obeisance to him, are the called class, with whom he has been dealing, but the setting here in Psalm 45 goes on into the Kingdom Age. In other words, these verses indicate what he will be doing during the Kingdom Age.

“Gird thy sword upon thy thigh, O most mighty, with thy glory and thy majesty.” What is the picture here?

Comment: When verses 3 and 4 are considered together, they sound like Revelation 19:11-16, when Jesus and the glorified Church are seen riding on white horses. “And I saw heaven opened, and behold a white horse; and he that sat upon him was called Faithful and True, and in righteousness he doth judge and make war. His eyes were as a flame of fire, and on his head were many crowns; and he had a name written, that no man knew, but he himself. And he was clothed with a vesture dipped in blood: and his name is called The Word of God. And the armies which were in heaven followed him upon white horses, clothed in fine linen, white and clean. And out of his mouth goeth a sharp sword, that with it he should smite the nations: and he shall rule them with a rod of iron: and he treadeth the winepress of the fierceness and wrath of Almighty God. And he hath on his vesture and on his thigh a name written, KING OF KINGS, AND LORD OF LORDS.”

Reply: Yes, that is correct. In verses 3 and 4, Jesus is riding on a horse during the Kingdom Age. He takes the sword, puts it in the scabbard, and then rides on the horse. “Ride prosperously because of truth and meekness and righteousness.” The suggestion is that Jesus mounts a horse and rides as the Leader in an activity that is about to take place.

The term “O most mighty” could have been rendered slightly better. God is Almighty and thus is more “mighty” than Jesus. Therefore, instead of “O most mighty,” the expression could have been “O mighty one” (see RSV). “O mighty one, ride on prosperously” is the thought.

“In thy majesty ride prosperously because of truth and meekness and righteousness; and thy right hand shall teach thee terrible [awesome] things.” What is Jesus’ “right hand,” and how does it “teach” him awesome and wondrous things? In a few pictures, Jesus is called the “arm” of Jehovah, but those examples do not answer this setting. The punctuation needs changing, as follows: “In thy majesty ride prosperously. Because of truth and meekness and righteousness, thy right hand shall teach thee awesome things.” Because of Jesus’ character and hunger for truth and righteousness, his hand is exercised proportionately. The “hand” represents deeds, as opposed to the foot, for example, which pictures one’s walk. The combination of Jesus’ hunger for truth, his righteousness, and his meek character or disposition guides and instructs the hand, so that he can do unbelievable things. Because of those characteristics, God has chosen him to have this power of the Holy Spirit. Jesus wants to see that things are done right and that justice prevails. In the Kingdom, the people will say, “Jesus is just the one for the job. He will clean up the mess on earth and establish order and harmony.”

Q: How is the word “teach” being used? It sounds rather unusual that Jesus’ right hand, even in a symbolic sense, would teach him awesome things.

A: We believe that David composed this Psalm. Earlier in his life, he tore apart the jaws of a lion and a bear, but he said that God’s power accomplished these feats, not his (1 Sam. 17:34-36).

When David talked to King Saul about Goliath, the giant had been challenging Israel and cursing Jehovah every day for 40 days. No Israelite had come out to answer the challenge, and then along came David, asking, “What is going on here?” When the situation was explained, he said, “I will take care of this matter in the spirit of God. This cursing cannot be allowed to continue.” The fact Saul proffered his armor shows that David was a big man, as were his brothers, for the family consisted of tall and strong people. David put on Saul’s armor, but feeling awkward, he discarded it and took a slingshot, selected five stones from the brook, and went out to meet Goliath in the strength of the Lord. He said in effect, “You defied God, so I will slay you and cut off your head.” David did just that—he took Saul’s sword and cut off Goliath’s head.

David acknowledged that he had done what the Law taught; namely, he brought back an ear or another part of the predator to prove to his master that he was a good shepherd and had not run away when the lion and the bear came to devour one of the sheep but had tried to rescue the animal. David had risked his life to protect the sheep, and in doing so, he found that he had more power than the lion and the bear. Of course he knew the power was not his but God’s. Because he obeyed the Law and defended the sheep, he found that he had unusual power. To convince Saul to let him answer the challenge from Goliath, David said, “The God who gave me the power to kill the lion and the bear will give me the power to slay this giant, who has defied His holy name.” Seeing David’s spunk, the people thought, “Maybe he can slay Goliath.” Receiving permission from Saul, David went out and killed Goliath in the strength of the Lord.

The principle is the same here in Psalm 45 because Jesus was meek and humble, because he loved righteousness and hated iniquity, and because he wanted to know the truth. During his earthly ministry, he told his disciples, “Whatever I say to you is not mine, for I did not originate the teaching. My Father taught me these things, and His Word is now coming forth from my lips to you.” Because Jesus had that disposition, God chose him to be the Messiah and gave him the power to be victorious in whatever he did. God blessed Jesus’ ministry all the way through.

“Because of truth and meekness and righteousness … thy right hand shall teach thee terrible things.” This power in Jesus showed that God was rewarding him. David said of his battles as a warrior, “God granted me the victories against the Canaanites, Amorites, and Philistines. The strength was His, not mine.” When we read the detail of David’s life, we see that his “hand” taught him.

Consider an accomplished pianist as another example. After he has thoroughly studied music, having diligently and laboriously practiced and gone to all kinds of performances, he finds out that when he plays an oratorio, he knows every note. The music is in his fingertips or in his bones, as it were, through obedience and hard study, sweat, toil, energy, and devotion. God similarly rewards those who love His Word in proportion to their love. Their obedience and performance come out automatically in time.

“Thine arrows are sharp in the heart of the king’s enemies; whereby the people fall under thee.” The Pastor explained these verses. The “arrows” are deep truths that penetrate, arrows of conviction. When arrows of truth plunged into us, they changed us from being an enemy of God to wanting to be a disciple, to wanting to fall down and worship Him. All of us were sinners in God’s sight and at enmity with Him, but because of our faith and obedience in kneeling in submission and prayer, the arrows of truth, instead of repelling us, caused us to prostrate ourselves and to fall down before Him.

Notice that verse 5 does not mention being trampled under the King’s feet. When an enemy is underfoot and being stamped on, he is killed through violence, but when he falls down before one’s face, that is submission, conviction, and obeisance.

Who, then, is the “king” in verse 5? He is Jehovah. Psalm 45 contains the words “God” and “king,” and each time they appear, they have to be considered in context to determine whether the reference is to Jesus or the Heavenly Father. In the context of verses 1-5, Jesus as a King is fighting for a superior King, whose enemies fall under Him when they are convicted by the sharp arrows of truth in the heart.

Q: Does Psalm 45 apply throughout the Kingdom Age?

A: Primarily yes, although the time applications go back and forth between the Kingdom Age and the Gospel Age. In verses 1-5, Jesus is being sent out on a mission during the Kingdom Age, when he will prosper in gleaning of mankind those who really love God. Even though the number of mankind who go into Second Death in the Kingdom Age is described as the sand of the sea, nevertheless, Jesus will prosper in gleaning out from this evil, dark world all who truly love God. Psalm 45 is a success story of those of mankind who ultimately come into fellowship and become sons of God, turning from enemies to friends. Other Psalms tell of those, both individuals and groups, who are evil in the Kingdom Age, but Psalm 45 brings out the positive and the beautiful. That is why David was bubbling over with emotion and joy.

Psa. 45:6 Thy throne, O God, is for ever and ever: the sceptre of thy kingdom is a right sceptre.

What period of time does verse 6 cover? We can now understand a little more clearly. Jesus will be King “for ever and ever” after the Kingdom Age. He will be recognized as second in authority and rank underneath Jehovah.

Comment: The Masoretic reads, “Thy throne, given of God.”

Reply: Jehovah and Jesus will both be Kings forever and ever, but there is a ranking of first and second, respectively. Like Joseph in Egypt, who was prime minister for Pharaoh, Jesus will be God’s “prime minister” throughout eternity.

Comment: Only in the throne is God greater.

Reply: Yes, Jesus is beside God’s throne in a separate throne.

Comment: Leeser also has, “Thy throne, given of God.”

Reply: Yes. Actually, “God” in verse 6 can be applied either way—that is, with “thy throne, O God” referring to Jesus or with “thy throne, given of God” referring to Jehovah—but whichever application is used, since Jesus is slaying Jehovah’s enemies, the throne of God is left inviolate. Both statements are true. As to which is intended, the choice is up to the individual.

Comment: Jesus promised the church of Laodicea, “To him that overcometh will I grant to sit with me in my throne, even as I also overcame, and am set down with my Father in his throne” (Rev. 3:21). This arrangement is for all eternity; it is not age-lasting for the Kingdom only. The Church will be heirs of God and joint-heirs with Jesus forever.

Reply: Jesus will not be a High Priest forever; that function will cease after the Kingdom Age, for sin will never be tolerated henceforth. Any sin that occurs in the ages of ages will immediately be expunged. There will be no mediation, no receiving of forgiveness.

Psa. 45:7 Thou lovest righteousness, and hatest wickedness: therefore God, thy God, hath anointed thee with the oil of gladness above thy fellows.

Because Jesus loved righteousness and hated wickedness, God, his Father, anointed him with the “oil of gladness” above his fellows. The Apostle Paul quoted this verse in Hebrews 1:9, “Thou hast loved righteousness, and hated iniquity; therefore God, even thy God, hath anointed thee with the oil of gladness above thy fellows.” Over the years, many talks have been given on love, but invariably they do not bring in the fact that the attribute of love has to be counterbalanced with the hatred of evil, or wickedness.

God Himself loves righteousness and hates iniquity. Among the proof texts are the following. “Justice and judgment are the habitation of thy throne: mercy and truth shall go before thy face” (Psa. 89:14). The attribute of Justice implies a responsiveness to both good and evil. Justice rewards the good and punishes the evil. “Clouds and darkness are round about him: righteousness and judgment are the habitation of his throne” (Psa. 97:2).

In the Book of Revelation, the Heavenly Father is pictured by two gem stones: the jasper (that is, the diamond) and the sard, the famous stone from the city of Sardis in Asia Minor. Because the sard stone will carve easily while retaining a good edge that wears long, it has been used as a carnelian or a cameo. The sard stone represents Jehovah’s quality of being approachable, of hearing and hearkening and being sympathetic. He can be touched with the feeling of our infirmities. That is one aspect of God’s character, whereas the diamond, being sharp and brilliant, pictures glory, sharpness, and brilliance. Just as darkness hates the light, so  wickedness shuns light. In a roundabout way, these two attributes are pictured in that fashion. The sard stone is the color of flesh. A person with a heart of flesh is tender and sympathetic to the feelings of others and to their destiny and welfare.

“Therefore God [Jehovah], thy [Jesus’] God, hath anointed thee with the oil of gladness above thy fellows.” Aaron was anointed over and above his four sons (Leviticus 8). When the anointing oil was poured on his head, he was anointed above the priesthood that God had in mind. The anointing of David is another picture, for he was anointed above his brothers. Jesse had seven other sons, but David, who was out tending the flocks, was selected by God to be a type of Christ (1 Sam. 16:10).

The “oil of gladness” reminds us of Psalm 133:2, which tells that the anointing oil poured upon Aaron’s head went down his beard to the hem of his garment. The Psalm tells about the high level of fellowship of true brethren in Christ, who are familiar with the Lord’s Word. The Holy Spirit has a mellowing effect and an appealing quality that is conducive to peace.

Psa. 45:8 All thy garments smell of myrrh, and aloes, and cassia, out of the ivory palaces, whereby they have made thee glad.

The fragrance of Jesus’ garments is a combination of myrrh, aloes, and cassia. When a woman adorned with properly chosen high-quality, expensive perfume is in a closed room or walks by, the fragrance is delightful. Thus we appreciate the influence of Jesus’ garments. Spiritually speaking, they are attractive, and they befit a person of his stature. The high priest’s garments of glory and beauty are an example in the type.

Let us use a much lower picture as an example. The Pastor was sometimes criticized for dressing very formally, but he responded that such attire was befitting for the public proclamation of the wonderful message of highest quality of good news from the Scriptures.

Of course much depends on the circumstance, but when one addresses a large crowd in a formal auditorium, he should dress properly, neatly, and cleanly, and without show, as would befit nobility. It is interesting that some very rich people choose modest but high-quality clothes. They avoid extreme trends and flashy colors. Their taste in dress is very becoming for a person of noble bearing or background. Accordingly, when Jesus comes out of the other room, he is dressed proportionately with simplicity but also with richness that is appropriate for his stature and behavior.

Myrrh is bitter. The Church class develop an attribute of character that, spiritually speaking, is based on their myrrh experiences. These bitter experiences develop character, particularly patience. Moreover, based on such development, we look to a certain type of individual for counsel because these individuals have not only head knowledge but also experience. The two qualities of theoretical knowledge and principles, coupled with experience in the affairs and deeds of life, produce wisdom. Accordingly, myrrh is a picture of wisdom.

Comment: The Song of Solomon mentions myrrh. “A bundle of myrrh is my wellbeloved unto me; he shall lie all night betwixt my breasts” (Song 1:13). “Until the day break, and the shadows flee away, I will get me to the mountain of myrrh, and to the hill of frankincense” (Song 4:6). “I am come into my garden, my sister, my spouse: I have gathered my myrrh with my spice; I have eaten my honeycomb with my honey; I have drunk my wine with my milk: eat, O friends; drink, yea, drink abundantly, O beloved” (Song 5:1).

Comment: A hundred pounds of a mixture of myrrh and aloes was used to anoint Jesus’ body for burial (John 19:39).

Reply: Aloes is usually associated with burial, yet it has a healing quality. Myrrh has a rather pungent odor and is a fumigant or a purgative. In some countries, it is used to overcome the unpleasant odor of garbage. Also, it is a preservative.

In addition, cassia is a symbol of Jesus’ workmanship, his ability to perform perfectly the Heavenly Father’s will and purposes. In other words, a variety of odors is pleasant and overrides obnoxious vapors. In a spiritual sense, therefore, when Jesus walked into a room, his mere entry manifested a holy presence. Job mentioned that in his former days of prominence as a judge, whenever he walked by, even children sobered up right away. People kept quiet because they saw that he had more wisdom than they, and children were calm. But when Job was suffering, the children mocked him.

Comment: Numbers 24:5,6 reads, “How goodly are thy tents, O Jacob, and thy tabernacles, O  Israel! As the valleys are they spread forth, as gardens by the river’s side, as the trees of lign aloes which the LORD hath planted, and as cedar trees beside the waters.”

Reply: All trees, which were made by God, have a function—willow trees, palm trees, pine trees, etc. Each kind has a peculiar trait.

“Out of the ivory palaces [the heavenly abode], whereby they [the fragrances and the garments] have made thee glad.” Jesus did not have the liberty that Lucifer had of going up and down among the planes of being, but as the Logos, the mouthpiece of God, he was given important information to transmit as advice and instruction on different occasions (Ezek. 28:14). There is a history in the spiritual realm with spirit beings, just as there is a history down here on earth with man, starting with the first chapter of Genesis. We have no idea what has happened in the history of the spiritual realm.

Jesus’ previous life in heaven with the Father so influenced John that he twice referred to it.

When Jesus claimed to be the Word, or the mouthpiece, of God, John said, “We beheld his glory”; that is, Jesus acted exactly like one coming from the heavenly abode. He was not just an ordinary personage who appeared on the scene. Everything Jesus did—his bearing, manner of talking, appearance, the way he walked, etc.—bespoke dignity and previous training and influence. “And the Word was made flesh, and dwelt among us, (and we beheld his glory, the glory as of the only begotten of the Father,) full of grace and truth” (John 1:14; cf. 1 John 1:1,2).

We firmly believe that the Garden Tomb north of Jerusalem was the sepulcher of Joseph of Arimathea. The tomb was never opened from the days of the Hadrian persecution, which occurred about AD 135, until it was unearthed in the 1860s. During all that time, the tomb was covered with earth. In the short century from AD 33 to 130, some peculiar things happened that are in harmony with what the apostles found when they looked in the tomb bed and saw proof that Jesus’ body had been laid there. For example, as originally made, the tomb bed was too short for the one who was to be buried there. At one end, the tomb bed was sculpted out to make the accommodation; that is, the rock was carved out to extend the length of the tomb bed in preparation for the body of a person six or eight inches taller than the individual it was designed for. Moreover, the extension was made in a rough fashion, as though done in haste, and was not finished like the rest of the tomb.

Also, when Jesus spoke to the multitudes during his earthly ministry, we conjecture that he was taller than ordinary men so that he could be seen and heard as he talked. Probably he was six feet tall, or six feet six inches at the most, which was unusual back there. Similarly, Moses was tall, and so was David, who could wear the armor of Saul, who was head and shoulders above his fellow Jews. The Scriptures were purposely written low-key so that we would listen to the message from Jesus’ lips, rather than concentrate on his handsome personage.

Psa. 45:9 Kings’ daughters were among thy honourable women: upon thy right hand did stand the queen in gold of Ophir.

The “queen in gold of Ophir” is the Bride, the Church, but who are the “kings’ daughters”?

Notice that both “kings” (the apostrophe is after the “s”) and “daughters” are plural, whereas in verse 5, the apostrophe is between the “g” and the “s,” indicating a singular King, that is, God. Therefore, the term “kings’ daughters” indicates that there are several—a king’s daughter, a king’s daughter, a king’s daughter, etc., or stated another way, a daughter of a king, a daughter of a king, a daughter of a king, etc. Protestant Bible scholars, as well as the Pastor, usually bypass this terminology and offer no explanation. What, then, is the thought?

The word “king” is used in several places in Scripture to indicate not just an individual but a government, so there are different “kings.” Even empires are spoken of as “kings,” meaning powers or countries (Dan. 2:44; 7:17). The point is that while the Church class are all daughters of Jehovah, for He is their Father, they originally came from all nations. Out of all nations, God has been calling a class. As an illustration, before Ruth was called, she was a Moabite, but after she was called, she became a proselyte Jew. Therefore, throughout the Gospel Age, God could see individuals in various nations who, with His training and Holy Spirit and their meekness, humility, and hunger for truth and righteousness, could be changed from their former status to His daughter. Knowing what He could do, He saw a potential that no one else could see. He knew that in obedience to His Holy Spirit, they could become His daughter in a particular sense as the “queen … of Ophir,” who stands beside Jesus. These individuals would be changed from what they were before to what they are now—the Bride of Christ. They were plural originally; they become singular as part of the composite whole. Expressed another way, the 144,000 members of the Little Flock are part of Isaac. Another picture shows the complete Church as Rebekah.

Psa. 45:10 Hearken, O daughter, and consider, and incline thine ear; forget also thine own people, and thy father’s house;

Verse 10 is a beautiful picture of our initial start as children of the Heavenly Father through Christ. The “daughter” is the “church of the firstborn,” but when the Psalm is read in its entirety, we can see that the term refers more to the elect portion of the church of the firstborn, which is the Bride class, the Little Flock, the 144,000 (Heb. 12:23). When we are initially called, that distinction is not made on our side, but of course the Father can see that there are two classes. In the present life, we are to be generous in our thinking and consider that all of the consecrated are running the same race to be of the “daughter,” but the Psalm makes clear that in the final analysis, the “daughter” is only the very elect.

“Consider, and incline thine ear [that is, hearken].” In order not to miss even one syllable in our consideration of the Master’s words, we bend the ear forward in prayer toward the Heavenly Father (or Jesus depending on circumstances).

“Forget also thine own people [our families and closest friends],” for this is a new relationship, a new friendship, on a completely different level of consideration. We are to forget not only our “own people”—father, mother, brother, sister, etc.—but also our “father’s house [the house of Adam].” All of our lineages go back to father Adam, and originally we were all members of the condemned human race.

Comment: Ruth of Moab is a good example from the Old Testament. She left her own people and accompanied Naomi back to Israel. Thus the Israelites became her people.

Reply: Yes, the things that happened to Israel are for our learning in the Gospel Age (1 Cor. 10:11). God had said to Israel, “You only have I known of all the families of the earth” (Amos 3:2). The promises were first made to the Jews, but it is amazing how relatively few hearkened to the spiritual calling. Those who did, especially in the first, or Ephesus, period of the Church, were exceedingly zealous.

Jehovah was speaking through the pen of David, who did not understand the spiritual aspect of what he was saying through the power of the Holy Spirit. In the Old Testament, the nation of Israel was frequently called “daughter,” so he would have assumed that was the application.

Psa. 45:11 So shall the king greatly desire thy beauty: for he is thy Lord; and worship thou him.

“So shall the king [Jesus] greatly desire thy beauty.” In this Psalm, the word “king” sometimes refers to the Heavenly Father and sometimes to Jesus. However, the general theme is the relationship between the Bride and the Bridegroom. The Father is brought into some of the verses.

On this side of the veil, we are aspiring to be of the Bride class. We will be selected in the final analysis if we are sufficiently zealous and obedient. Jesus allows the Heavenly Father to do the more crucial examination and thus determine which of the consecrated become part of the Bride class. Jesus has nothing to say about who sits on his right and left hand (Matt. 20:23).

Jehovah extended the original call to come out of Adam’s house. We are prospective sons and daughters of God, but the relationship and empathy are so close between Father and Son that it is sometimes difficult to determine with exact distinctness who is being referred to. However, there is usually a clue that helps us to at least indirectly come to a fairly definite conclusion.

Comment: In the type, Abraham (picturing God) asked Eliezer (the Holy Spirit) to seek a bride for Isaac (Jesus).

Reply: Yes. Just as Eliezer was the oldest servant of Abraham, so the Holy Spirit is older than Jesus. God’s Word, His thinking, and His planning are older than the Son. Thus the chain of command taught in Scripture is the Father, the Holy Spirit, and Jesus.

“The king … is thy Lord.” In this case, “Lord” is a reference to Jesus. Context is the determining factor in the Old Testament. God was saying, “So shall my Son, the Lord Jesus Christ, greatly desire and appreciate the beauty of the Bride.” The primary reason Jesus came down to earth was to pay the ransom price, but another purpose was to become acquainted with the human race and its problems so that he would be a more sympathetic High Priest (Heb. 2:17; 4:15).

Jesus said, “I thank thee, O Father, Lord of heaven and earth, because thou hast hid these things from the wise and prudent, and hast revealed them unto babes” (Matt. 11:25). “Babes,” little ones, are being called, and not the wisest, strongest, most handsome, wealthiest, etc., of mankind. When we think on this subject and consider the backgrounds, it is startling to realize that God calls the humble, the meek, and the lowly, and that from these will be selected the Church in glory, who will enjoy the promised future role with Jesus as their Lord. God’s ways will confound others who are wiser, more noble, and even seemingly more courageous in many respects (1 Cor. 1:27,28). However, true courage is realizing that we can do nothing in our own strength. The divine plan is marvelous, whereby God, who dwells in the heaven of heavens, has this disposition of respect for, interest in, and concern for us as His children.

Psa. 45:12 And the daughter of Tyre shall be there with a gift; even the rich among the people shall entreat thy favour.

The “daughter of Tyre” represents the daughter of Satan. The two true “Rocks” are Jehovah and, under Him, Christ Jesus. The false “rock” is Satan, the “anointed cherub,” whose wisdom and beauty excelled when he was originally created. God said the following of Satan, the “king of Tyrus”:

“Thou sealest up the sum, full of wisdom, and perfect in beauty.

“Thou hast been in Eden the garden of God; every precious stone was thy covering, the sardius, topaz, and the diamond, the beryl, the onyx, and the jasper, the sapphire, the emerald, and the carbuncle, and gold: the workmanship of thy tabrets and of thy pipes was prepared in thee in the day that thou wast created.

“Thou art the anointed cherub that covereth; and I have set thee so: thou wast upon the holy mountain of God; thou hast walked up and down in the midst of the stones of fire.

“Thou wast perfect in thy ways from the day that thou wast created, till iniquity was found in thee.

“By the multitude of thy merchandise they have filled the midst of thee with violence, and thou hast sinned: therefore I will cast thee as profane out of the mountain of God:

and I will destroy thee, O covering cherub, from the midst of the stones of fire.

“Thine heart was lifted up because of thy beauty, thou hast corrupted thy wisdom by reason of thy brightness: I will cast thee to the ground, I will lay thee before kings, that they may behold thee.

“Thou hast defiled thy sanctuaries by the multitude of thine iniquities, by the iniquity of thy traffic; therefore will I bring forth a fire from the midst of thee, it shall devour thee, and I will bring thee to ashes upon the earth in the sight of all them that behold thee.

“All they that know thee among the people shall be astonished at thee: thou shalt be a terror, and never shalt thou be any more.” (Ezek. 28:12-19)

We will quote two Scriptures to try to prove there is a relationship between the “daughter of Tyre” and Satan. The first text is Revelation 17:5, “And upon her forehead was a name written, MYSTERY, BABYLON THE GREAT, THE MOTHER OF HARLOTS AND ABOMINATIONS OF THE EARTH.” The “man of sin” is the Papacy, the false Church, but there is also a “man of God,” that is, The Christ, the true Church. When Satan beguiled or tempted the true Church, many fell from favor, and he has been active ever since, especially during the Dark Ages, doing his nefarious deeds through the mechanism of the false Church down here. As the “god of this world,” he operated first through the Roman Empire and the Caesars and subsequently through the Holy Roman Empire and a false Church that has deceived mankind (2 Cor. 4:4).

From this perspective, just as God had a “daughter,” so Satan had a “daughter.”

Psalm 45 is not usually considered in depth, and for many years, we were careful with regard to doing so, for there is a tendency to give quick explanations without considerable or sufficient thought. We believe that the true Church and the false Church are both daughters and that the “daughter of Tyre” is the “mother of harlots,” the “harlots” being a correspondency to the Great Company class. Thus there is a dual application. Satan is very brilliant, and wanting to be like God, he counterfeited what God did and distorted the original thinking for his personal glory and aggrandizement.

True (Daughter of God)                               False (Daughter of Satan)

Little Flock        Great Company          False Little Flock        False Great Company

Rebekah             Handmaids                 Harlot mother              Harlot daughters

The second helpful text is Revelation 3:9, “Behold, I will make them of the synagogue of Satan, which say they are Jews, and are not, but do lie; behold, I will make them to come and worship before thy feet, and to know that I have loved thee.” In the Book of Revelation, the literal takes on a spiritual application, so this class of individuals called “Jews” symbolizes those who were falsely claiming to be Christians, the people of God. Just as God said of the nation of Israel, “You only have I known of all the families of the earth,” so Satan has had a false Israel, a counterfeit (Amos 3:2). Notice the term “synagogue of Satan,” meaning the church, ecclesia, or arrangement into which Satan has entered to mastermind deceit. He has been successful in drawing a multitude after him. In almost everything he does, he copies Jehovah, who is the height of intellect. When Lucifer was created, God complimented him as being “perfect in beauty” and praised his singing and great intelligence. In fact, Lucifer appeared to be wiser than the Logos, but the Logos was learning the Father’s methods. Being intensely enamored of his Heavenly Father helped the Logos not to be led astray, as Lucifer was by his own brilliance.

Lucifer’s attributes became a handicap so that he wanted to ascend and be like God. Therefore, the “synagogue of Satan” is the “church of Satan,” particularly the Roman Catholic Church.

“The daughter of Tyre shall be there with a gift.” In the Kingdom, those who are now of the synagogue of Satan will have to come and worship before the feet of The Christ, Head and body (Rev. 3:9). In other words, those of the false Church will have to acknowledge those of the true Church in order to get life and be forgiven for their false claims and cruel treatment of the true Church. Each pope, for instance, will have to spit out his false words and claims, admitting they were blasphemous.

Q: To receive forgiveness, the three supposed comforters had to ask Job to pray for them. In the Kingdom, will popes have to ask the Church to pray to the Father for their forgiveness?

A: We do not know the exact mechanics, but certainly the popes will have to individually humble themselves if they want to go up the highway of holiness. The books of Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and Revelation all emphasize this necessary humbling aspect. However, rather than go into such Scriptures now, we are merely trying to identify, with some degree of accuracy if possible, the prominent characters in Psalm 45.

“Even the rich among the people shall entreat thy favour.” The notable and powerful rulers, kings, leaders, and personalities down through history, many of whom have been praised and/or beatified as saints, will have to give cognition to The Christ. Public sin has to be publicly acknowledged with a public asking for forgiveness. Private and public sins are handled differently. One who commits a public sin should publicly amend, retract, or seek forgiveness for the situation as soon as possible.

Psa. 45:13 The king’s daughter is all glorious within: her clothing is of wrought gold.

A comparison is being made with the previous verse—the “daughter of Tyre [Satan]” versus the “king’s [Jehovah’s] daughter.” The King’s daughter beyond the veil is “all glorious within.”

In the present life, the flesh is the problem, so when the flesh is removed and the soul is given a perfect spirit body, the warfare will cease, and the true being of each of the Church class will be seen for what it really is. Even though such individuals are fallen in the flesh in the present life, their true desire, as will be seen, is for perfection. The fallen flesh is such an inhibiting factor that the saints cannot really manifest their true being until their resurrection. Incidentally, we have to be careful lest we overly condemn ourselves in some instances and get into an extreme down state instead of running to the throne of grace to ask for forgiveness and help.

Comment: The identity of the “king” varies from verse to verse depending on context (see verses 1,5,9,11,13-15). King Jehovah’s daughter will marry His Son, King Jesus. In the term “kings’ daughters,” the “kings” (plural) are the kings of this world—and hence are different from the “king” (singular) in the term “king’s daughter,” meaning Jehovah, the “King” over all.

Reply: Yes. The Bride class is called out of the various nations, with the call going westward particularly but not exclusively. Great works, of which we know practically nothing, have also been accomplished in India, China, and Japan.

Comment: The glorified Bride’s “clothing is of wrought gold [the divine nature].”

Psa. 45:14 She shall be brought unto the king in raiment of needlework: the virgins her companions that follow her shall be brought unto thee.

Psa. 45:15 With gladness and rejoicing shall they be brought: they shall enter into the king’s palace.

“She [the true Church] shall be brought unto the king [Jehovah] in raiment of [fine] needlework [for the wedding]: [and] the virgins her companions [the Great Company] that follow her shall [subsequently, at a later time] be brought unto thee [for the marriage supper]. With gladness and rejoicing shall they [the Church] be brought: they [the Church] shall enter into the king’s [Jehovah’s] palace.” To define and understand the terms, we have to give some background reasoning.

When complete in earth’s atmosphere, the Church will first come to Jesus, but they will subsequently be proclaimed before the whole heavenly host. The Father, who dwells in the heaven of heavens, will be at the wedding. The Father and the Son each have a separate palace.

Therefore, for the Church to enter Jehovah’s palace means they will be there for a particular purpose, namely, the wedding. The Great Company will not be at the wedding but will attend the marriage supper, a later separate event (Rev. 19:7-9).

The Father calls and chooses the Bride, and He chose the husband of the Bride. “Gladness and rejoicing” refer to the acclamation that will be going on with the initial grand welcome of the Bride. When Jesus made his calling and election sure, and received his resurrection and ascended to heaven, there was a ten-day hiatus, or period of silence, down here prior to Pentecost. During that time, he was being feted in heaven with the cry “Worthy is the Lamb” (Rev. 5:12). The Church will be similarly honored in heaven while the Great Company class experience a silence back here on earth (Rev. 8:1).

“They [the Church] shall enter into the king’s [Jehovah’s] palace” for the formal occasion of the wedding. The Great Company class will see God and have many other liberties and favors because of their relationship with the Bride, the Queen, but to have them present at this point would entail too much time, for when the Great Company are complete, the Kingdom Age will be beginning. The marriage ceremony will be not only a wedding but also an enthronement to sit on a seat of power and reign. Moreover, we do not see the Great Company getting special praise, for they are a rescued class.

Q: Will the marriage take place in the Father’s palace, and then the reception, or marriage supper, happen later in Jesus’ own residence when the Great Company is present?

A: Yes, and in addition to the marriage supper in heaven, there will be a later supper down here—a “feast of fat things” upon the mountain (Isa. 25:6). Not much detail is provided on the memorialization down here at the inauguration of the Kingdom.

Following the completion of the Church will come a three-year period before even the Great Company class are finished. In those three years, a lot of other things will happen. And after the Great Company finish their course, much cleanup work will have to be done. For example, seven months will be required just for the dead in Israel to be buried (Ezek. 39:12). There will not be much of a reign during those seven months in the sense that we think of a reign because every citizen will have to participate in burying the dead to cleanse the land.

Q: Who will be rejoicing in verse 15?

A: Two separate rejoicings will occur at two different time periods. For example, when a new king of Persia selected a queen following the death of the former king, a feast of fat things was held on the palatial grounds with the people of the empire congregating for the two-month festivity. The rejoicing of verse 15 is private for the Church at the wedding. It will occur during the half hour of silence while the Great Company are still down here. When the half hour ends, the Great Company will be informed that the Bride has made herself ready, and they will then have to go through a period of washing their robes in the blood of the Lamb in the great tribulation (Rev. 7:14).

Psa. 45:16 Instead of thy fathers shall be thy children, whom thou mayest make princes in all the earth.

The “fathers” are Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Moses, etc.—the Ancient Worthies of old. Instead of being the “fathers” of the Bride class, the Ancient Worthies will be the “children.” It was prophesied of Rebekah, “Be thou the mother of thousands of millions, and let thy seed possess the gate of those which hate them” (Gen. 24:60). Jesus, the Second Adam, will be the age-lasting Father of the regenerated race of Adam, and the Church, the Second Eve, will be the mother.

Mankind will come forth from the tomb as children of The Christ. Scriptures in the Song of Solomon and elsewhere clarify this subject. The awakening of the human race from the tomb will be a new birth, a new opportunity.

The Church (with Jesus)—that is, The Christ—will make the Ancient Worthies “princes in all the earth.” In Ezekiel’s Temple, a “prince” will preside in a rotating office, sitting in the east gate as a civil ruler, but he will not go into the Most Holy, which pertains to the ecclesiastical aspect. Church and state will function together in the Kingdom, being in harmony with each other, yet the roles will be separate.

Comment: Instead of being the progenitors of the Gospel Age more-than-overcomers, the Ancient Worthies will become the children.

Psa. 45:17 I will make thy name to be remembered in all generations: therefore shall the people praise thee for ever and ever.

“I [David] will make thy [Jesus’] name to be remembered in all generations.” The Bible, the standard of truth, will be a witness in the Kingdom Age. The people will praise primarily Jesus (and only secondarily the Church) forever and ever because the man seen at the beginning of the Psalm riding on a horse with a sword at his side is Jesus (verses 3 and 4). The general mood or main thrust of Psalm 45 is to explain the relationship between Jesus and his Church, between the Bridegroom and his Bride. However, God is brought into the Psalm because He is the Author of the whole arrangement. The Psalm shows due acknowledgment being given to the Heavenly Father, even though the emphasis is slanted toward Jesus and the Church, generally speaking.

The Psalms will be sung in the Kingdom Age. God has arranged not only for a Temple to be built but also for singers, music, and words for the music. The New Covenant will be much like the old Law Covenant, with Jesus being the Mediator instead of Moses. The principles of the two covenants are the same. The Old Testament Law should not be diminished because it is God’s thinking. The Gospel Age is an age of mercy to a certain class, and the Kingdom Age will be an age of mercy to the remainder of mankind. At the expiration of those two ages—that is, as the saved of mankind enter the ages of ages—the Law will be the standard forever. No disobedience will be tolerated henceforth.

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